It is a widely accepted notion that the major change brought by the 2003 November revolution in Georgia was the reform of the public services. Two major tasks were to be achieved for the state institutions: to monopolize the use of legitimate power on the state territory and to start providing services to the citizens. Police reform was at the heart of both these objectives. The major obstacle identified on the way of this reform was corruption. Indeed it was widely known that posts in police forces were to be purchased; policemen were involved in organized crime, extortion, and other illegal pursuits. But the corruption itself was the effect of the broader system in which patrimonial system of not distinguishing between the public office and private sphere was hybridized with the legal-rational rule, having its origin in the Soviet Union. The main subject of our research is to analyze the model of informal power network in Georgian police, to describe its configurations and identify its social actors.
For the theoretical approach in our study we will use different theories describing informal institutes and the reasons of their existence. One of the main theoretical sources for our analysis will be the theoretical concept of Helmke and Levitsky. Helmke and Levitsky are describing four types of informal institutions which we plan to apply to Georgian police system and identify which of them is more relevant for Georgian reality. Also we will refer to such theories as: Mark Granoveter's strength of week ties and social “embeddedness” of economic action; Mars and Altman's Cultural Basis of Soviet Georgia; Ledeneva's theory of “Blat”, which is one of most popular analytical theory about informal relations in post-Soviet countries.
The main methods we have used are in-depth and narrative interviews. The interviews have been conducted with policemen currently working in different police departments, policemen no more working in this structure, expert and NGO representatives.
This paper presents the rate and effects of urban sprawl in Ethiopia highlighting the city of Addis Ababa. The purpose is to assess the rate and effects of urban sprawl and its role for metropolitan linkage. The study was conducted based on both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were obtained from selected informants who can be principally distinguished as key government officials such as mayor and head of sub-cities and selected satellite towns. The qualitative approaches used were based on document and content analysis. The rate of urban sprawl along the five outlets of the city is dissimilar. The highest growth rate of urban spread has been observed along the Mojo outlet stretching to the towns of Dukem and Debrezeit; the rate of spread along the Jimma outlet to Alem Gena is also high. A lesser extent of urban sprawl is found along Dessie, Gojam and Nekemite outlets. The rate of urban sprawl along the Mojo and Jimma outlets is more than double that of the other outlets. Holistically, in 2010, the growth of the city stretched along its catchments for an average of about 1 km in all direction, and 2 km along the major outlets. From 2020 onward, it is predicted to 0.5 km intervals. The city may also expand vertically rather than horizontally. Urban sprawl has both positive and negative effects on the areas of expansion and their peoples. The positive effects are that it contributes to improvements in the economy of farmers in the invaded areas, changes their way of life to an urban style, and the indigenous peoples also have a better chance of being reclassified as urban and therefore of engaging in urban employment than under the previous system of farming. This development also plays a significant role in the urban growth of the city and the integration of satellite areas. Thus, the rate of urban growth of the city is very high. The ideal prescription would be to practice strong integrative work with the sub-cities and proximate rural areas in order to encourage timely and proper supervision and to bring the required growth to the city.
One of the most significant current discussions in Chinese philosophy is the problem of interpreting the notion of wú wéi. As one of the popular concepts of ancient Chinese thought, wú wéi was used and differently interpreted in various philosophical schools from the very beginning. In this article, the Daoist notion of wú wéi will be explored as the “art of stopping when it’s time to stop”, taking the philosophical approach and appealing to the text of the Zhuangzi. The critical investigation into the sinological literature allows us to reveal several different contemporary attitudes towards wú wéi as the aim, process, and ground for the “ideal” human existence
This article examines Japan’s role in advancing regional forest governance in Southeast Asia and reasons why the country, despite claiming environmental leadership, has not created a strong long-term institutional framework to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). The first half of the article is dedicated to analyzing Asia Forest Partnership and bilateral agreements with Indonesia and Malaysia in the light of implementation of SFM. The second half examines Japan’s domestic interest groups and their attitudes towards SFM and cooperation for forest protection with the Southeast Asian countries. The article argues that the gap between Japan’s commitments and actual activities has not been closed in the most recent cooperation for forest protection in the region. One of the major reasons for that is the strength and resistance against the regulations of the Japanese companies that benefit from the free trade of tropical timber.
Zainichi Koreans have been attracting and recently attract more and more attention from the scientists and journalists. This tendency is welcoming, because Zainichi Koreans, as a socio-political phenomenon, have to be investigated and presented not only to the fellow researchers, but to the mass audience as well. Nevertheless, the constantly growing amount of literature still has not been analyzed in historiographical manner. The lack of such works makes it quite difficult for other researchers to start working on Zainichi Koreans’ issues. Social scientists usually do not conduct their own separate historiographical research; therefore, the understanding of a particular issue is a matter of one’s own efforts. Researches on Zainichi Koreans have been conducted since the early sixties and ever since then there have been changes in mainstream theories, approaches or methodologies. In order not to repeat the mistakes of other researchers, or conduct what has already been done, it is crucial for the scientists to be aware of the previous progress. In this paper I provide the review of the present historiography on Zainichi Koreans, including publications since 1962 till 2009. It is important to mention, that this review does not contain all possible positions of Zainichi historiography - only a certain part of them was taken to present the tendencies throughout the aforementioned period of time.
The paper is concerned with the status of language and its usage in Zhuangzi and how this particular way of viewing and using language can affect our “perception” of Dao. Zhuangzi’s language skepticism is first introduced and possible reasons for Zhuangzi’s mistrust in language are explored. The question is then raised as to why Zhuangzi himself used language to talk about Dao if he mistrusted it. At this point Zhuangzi’s usage of language is discussed in two aspects: the negative aspect and the positive aspect, the latter being the main concern of this paper. The negative aspect is exposed as the denouncing factor of employing (fuzzy) language to undermine (propositional) language while using different techniques (paradox, uncertainty/doubt, mockery, reversal). The positive aspect is explored as twofold: first, putting language and reason to their “proper” limits entails an acquisition of a broader perspective and a more receptive, open state of mind which prepares one for the wordless “perception” of Dao. Second, fuzzy language is presented as capable of “accommodating” silence and emptiness. Doing so it unites silence and speech giving an incredible insight of what Dao is about. An approach taking from both the principles of scholarly analysis and an unrestricted personal experience of the text is employed.
This article provides a broad overview of social, economic, and cultural politics in Latin America, especially concentrating on what became known as the Latin American literary “boom” in the 1960s and 1970s, and the region’s political context - colonial past, neocolonial/neoliberal present, the role of intellectuals within the state and cultural affairs. The second part focuses on Roberto Bolaño - the writer who put Latin American literature on the world map which has not been seen since the boom years - and his novel The Savage Detectives. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that literature not only shares common elements and possible intentions with social and political critique, but that it can also be an effective form of social and political criticism. In such a case, Bolaño’s work may be read not as inferior fictional account but as a complex, intersectional investigation of socioeconomic as well as ontological condition in Latin America that other modes of inquiry may overlook.