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Managerial Accounting - an Essential Component of the Information System

Abstract

Accounting it’s an important component of the economic information system. E. Horomnea believes that through specific means and procedures, accounting provides: clarifications of the past and the present of the economic entities, pertinent analyzes that are directed to the market; provides guidance on the strategic future; provides motivations and solutions for the decisions made. This article will analyze the evolution of managerial accounting from traditional costing to the new guidelines, when the issue of creating added value and managing third parties needs represents the future of any information system. After 1987 there are continuous changes and concerns, not only at Romanian level but at world wide scale.

Open access
The Populist Political Parties and their Overthrow in the Prevalent Order

Abstract

The world is entering a new international economic order, with clearly different characteristics to the previous one. Apart from the fundamental rotation (every 40-50 years) between the regimes of free trade and protectionism, the decisive difference is the rapid rise of populist parties that are gradually displacing traditional political parties and traditional governments in Europe and the world. This development is the angry response of the victims of globalization, which has created many losers and few winners. Despite some differences among these new political parties, depending on whether they belong to the right or left, they all share certain basic choices, such as closed borders, the return of nationalism, the need for state intervention in the economy, a more equitable distribution of wealth, the demonstration of hostility to elitism and the status quo, the limitation of unregulated stock market economy, the greater emphasis on domestic production and consumption than exports. This status change is important not only from the point of view of mutating from liberal to illiberal democracy, but also from the point of view of the radical economic changes expected at the international and national levels. The main question, which at present cannot be answered, is whether life on the planet Earth will be better or worse as a result of these fundamental changes that penetrate our everyday life.

Open access
The Role of Computerized Solutions in Consolidating Financial Results from the European and Anglo-Saxon Accounting Systems

Abstract

The implementation of up-to-date technologies in the accounting system of modern entities is a topical subject, by the desire of enterprises to align themselves with the current of international globalization but also by the requirements imposed by the science and practice to join the accounting main issues in the field. The accounting technique evolved with the technological innovations, related to each evolutionary period of the human society. The paper aims to identifying the factors that influenced the whole process of the development of information technologies in the financial-accounting field; identifying the main issues related to the technological interaction in accounting and, in this context, identifying the tools and technological supports in the evolution of the accounting technique, from the empirical forms of accounting to the present day, in the age of globalization, amid the continuous need for normalization and standardization of accounting procedures, especially applicable to the consolidation of financial results.

Nowadays, the most used digital technology in computerized accounting and management is Cloud-Computing ERP solutions, a form of digital accounting that will represent the critical mass of accounting information system in the near future, and this paper will present and discuss such solutions.

Open access
The Sharing Economy and Sustainability: a Case Study of India

Abstract

The ongoing debates and discussions about sharing economy revolve round its definition, regulations and impact on economy, business and consumers. The paper attempts to develop a theoretical framework that define the sharing economy and analyse the possible association between the sharing economy and sustainability.

The paper also assesses the need for an institutional and regulatory framework to strengthen sharing economy as an economic driver, potentially contributing to the more sustainable growth of the world economy.

Open access
Applied Analysis of the Impact of Inventory Valuation Methods on the Financial Situation and Financial Performance

Abstract

At the level of any entity (company), inventory represents an important category of current assets, and implicitly, of total assets. Starting from the importance of this category of assets for the normal development of the production or sales activity, this paper has as priority objectives the following: delimitation of the theoretical aspects regarding the inventory valuation of the sold goods; determining the impact that inventory valuation methods may have on the financial position and financial performance of the company; applied analysis of inventory valuation options. The results obtained from both theoretical and practical research verify the main assumption that the inventory valuation options have a different impact on financial situation and the financial performance of an entity.

Open access
Comparative Management of Human Resources between USA and Japan

Abstract

Despite the differences between Japanese and styles, both will have a huge impact on their national economies. In terms of cultural management styles will continue to present significant differences. Although nothing is certain, both Americans and Japanese must continue to adapt their management styles to maintain global competitiveness. In general, human resources, labor relations within organizations are mainly features that differentiate the Japanese management system of other countries, especially the US.

Open access
Economic Evaluation of Health Programs – Health Expenditures in the European Union

Abstract

Health Care is a sensitive issue that concerns not only the individual but also society in general. Health economics are a specialization of the economists in the health sector who aim for the proper function of hospital administration. It deals with issues related to the financing and delivery of health services and the role of such services and other personal decisions in contributing to personal health. Many researches refer to the problems that each health unit faces, emphasizing on the resources, programs and health expenditure. Some of these programs, especially the most effective, are mentioned in this research. Their creation was based on the best quality of health services in all OECD countries.

With this research, we aim to develop a methodological framework for evaluating the total health expenditure (consists of all expenditures or outlays for medical care, prevention, promotion, rehabilitation, community health activities, health administration and regulation and capital formation with the predominant objective of improving health) in the 23 OECD countries, by creating a panel data regression and analyzing the results, from 2000 to 2014. For this reason, some of the most important variables (macroeconomic and related to the health sector), were used as tools to assess the performance of each country, as far as the resources and the expenditure for the health care are concerned. Every explanatory variable that was used in this sample, but also the combination of a number of these explanatory variables showed a positive correlation with total expenditures as a percentage of GDP in the majority of the equations. Some variables showed a negative correlation with total health expenditures, which doesn’t fit with the economic theory. Financial crisis is the reason for this.

Open access
Increasing Awareness about Contagious Diseases through Information Campaigns in Romania

Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the awareness of the population about the kinds of contagious diseases to which it is exposed, as well as ways to prevent known and applied in everyday life. Presentation exposes results of a survey in the Dambovita county of Romania and tries to explain it by reference to information campaigns on contagious diseases. The empirical study reveals the main contagious diseases known and those less known by people, the favourite sources of information, the main measures of prevention known and applied by individuals. Finally some considerations are made regarding the future organization of information campaigns in this area.

Open access
Integrate CAATS Technologies into Data Selection and Data Analysis

Abstract

This research paper is a study of the application of selection techniques in financial audit, with particular attention to the sampling selection technique, as well as an attempt to find out how to improve them, especially in the current informational context.

Computer assisted auditing techniques (CAATS) are able to analyze enlarge data volumes to distinguish errors by taking all activities of the economic entity in the audit period.

Open access
Monetary Policy and Export Diversification in Nigeria

Abstract

This study examined the extent to which monetary policy has influenced export diversification in Nigeria for the period 1962 to 2014. The study employed descriptive and ordinary least squares techniques. The descriptive analysis revealed that the diversification exercise in Nigeria can only be expressed as average.

The regression estimate showed that monetary policy was insignificant in influencing export diversification in Nigeria. The study concluded that monetary policy has not played a fundamental role in enhancing export diversification in Nigeria. The study recommended that monetary policy should be purpose driven towards the achievement of export diversification.

This can be achieved by employing selective-sectoral monetary policy measures in accelerating investment in various non-oil sectors of the economy such as the mining, manufacturing and tourism sectors.

Open access