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Mirosław Grusiewicz

Abstract

In the interwar years the press was the main medium that provided specialist knowledge, current information, or entertainment. It is from the articles in the press of that time that we can learn a lot about the universal music education in that period. These articles are an invaluable source of knowledge: both in the field of educational practice and in the sphere of ideas, thoughts, discourse, and normative and axiological assumptions. The present paper is a comprehensive approach to the issues concerning universal music education that were discussed in specialist and socio-cultural periodicals of that time. The purpose of the study is not to analyze in detail but to present a general description of the content found in the available sources. Nevertheless, even this superficial treatment enables one to perceive the state of education and the principal themes of discussions on music education held during the interwar period. The survey of the interwar press takes into account over a dozen titles representing teaching/methodology journals and some periodicals dealing with other subjects. They are “Muzyka w Szkole” [Music at school], “Śpiew w Szkole” [Singing at school], “Nowa Muzyka w Szkole” [New Music at school], “Śpiewak Śląski” [the Silesian singer], “Przegląd Muzyczny” [Music review]” “Chór” [Choir], “Orkiestra” [Orchestra], “Muzyka Kościelna” [Churhc music], “Hosanna”, “Wiadomości Muzyczne” [Music news], “Muzyka” [Music], “Kwartalnik Muzyczny” [Music quarterly], “Muzyka Polska” [Polish music], “Lwowskie Wiadomości Muzyczne i Literackie” [Lvov literary and music news]. The characteristics of the content of these periodicals provokes the following reflections: despite the passage of time many questions and problems of universal music education have not lost their relevance at all; both articles on teaching methods and the texts discussing theory can be highly inspiring even today, not only to scholars interested in the subject but to ordinary readers as well.

Open access

Kamila Lucyna Boguszewska

Abstract

Orangery structures were built in the whole Polish Commonwealth already from the 18th century. These structures were constructed both in large complexes of landed estates owned by aristocracy and in smaller manor-house/park complexes owned by the gentry. The popularity of these glasshouses (greenhouses) stemmed from their utilitarian functions and from the fashion for exotic plants which were often used and placed in the open as decoration for the gardens surrounding palaces and manors. Greenhouse buildings were divided into cool greenhouses, so-called orangeries, and heated greenhouses, called hothouses. The former type, often called orangeries, prevailed in the Lublin province. The models of ready-made orangery structures could be found in various guides. In the 19th and early 20th centuries the publications by Edmund Jankowski and Józef Strumiłło were highly popular. The books presented the basic principles of developing greenhouse buildings and adapting the already existing old orangeries, and described plant species suitable for different types of hothouses and cool greenhouses, taking their requirements and ways of growing into account. The article presents the basic assumptions of constructing these types of buildings. The author characterizes the still extant orangeries in the Lublin province as compared with the available design patterns. Apart from orangeries, the study also presents winter gardens accompanying palaces and manors, which functionally complemented the residences. The article also discusses the rules of designing these types of interiors and the basic plant species used in those facilities.

Open access

Przemysław J. Moskal

Abstract

Technological progress in the last three decades has considerably changed the creative process in many fields of art. Computer technologies of the 1980s became available to large numbers of users owing to the appearance of personal computers on the market. These computers enabled artists to manipulate the sound and picture to a far greater extent. Through interaction they also made it possible for the spectator to interfere in a work of art, thereby introducing a multitude of interpretations and direct influence on works of art. The idea of the spectator’s participation in jointly creating a work of art was utilized long before a personal computer was constructed. Such artists as Marcel Duchamp, John Cage, Allan Kaprow, or Nam June Paik, to name only a few, were pioneers of interaction and the audience’s involvement in the creative process. The article discusses the term “interaction in art” and, which is the main subject of discourse, selected theoretical and practical aspects of the concepts utilizing the interaction phenomenon that are represented by Roy Ascott, Ryszard Kluszczyński, Ron Burnett, Filipp Tommas Marinetti, Marcel Duchamp, John Cage, Allan Kaprow, and Nam Jun Paik.

Open access

Marek Letkiewicz

Abstract

Zograscope is an optical device made to generate the illusion of immaterial space and its projection from a flat picture. Zograscopes appeared in the 1740s and were used until the late 1830s. They are a type of devices called “optical diagonal machines”, classified today as “the early visual media”. The emergence of the zograscope was a turning point in the history of generating and projecting pictures because it opened the chapter of constructing devices to project immaterial 3D pictures. From the historical perspective, zograscopes were something more than a popular parlor entertainment. They embody the Enlightenment drive for seeking knowledge and improvement. The patrons and lovers of science gathered around the optical devices for 3D projection constructed by members of scientific societies supported by aristocratic patrons of art and science, who were collectors at the same time, which may have happened already in the second half of the 17th century. However, those devices were not in general use at that time. The situation changes in the 1740s when zograscopes became desired consumer goods of the English elites and the subject of industrial interest.

Open access

Renata Suchowiejko

Abstract

The present article looks at the music of Mieczysław Karłowicz from the perspective of Bolesław Leśmian’s philosophical poetry. The aim of the discussion, however, is not to seek parallel themes or musical transpositions but to capture certain traits of ideological attitude, which is founded on the question about the meaning of human existence. Leśmian’s poetry is characterized by profound meditation on the mystery of existence, by the search for truth about man, and by familiarization with death through discovering its diverse manifestations in art, nature, and in life. His poems show a strong presence of mystical experience, the so-called “oceanic feeling” or “pantheistic experience of unity”, which was one of the leading motifs of Young Poland poetry. It was readily utilized by Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Jan Kasprowicz, or Antoni Lange. In the symphonic music of Mieczysław Karłowicz we can recognize a similar type of sensitivity and emotional mood that perfectly harmonizes with the spiritual and artistic atmosphere of the period. His works reflect the tendency, characteristic of modernism, to cross boundaries and penetrate the mystery of being. Listening to this “song without words” is at the same time an encouragement to enter the world of values and human experiences, which is usually omitted by scholars in musicological analyses.

Open access

Kamila Lucyna Boguszewska

Abstract

Residential complexes are an inherent element of the Lublin province’s cultural landscape. Currently, the register of Lublin’s heritage monuments conservator lists 143 palaces and villas, and 146 manor houses. The condition of these buildings varies, which is the result of the way they were utilized after WW2. The article presents selected palace- -park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the province of Lublin. The author explains the terminology and classification of residential complexes. The study also describes the history, spatial arrangement, transformations, and the present-day condition of the selected palace-park complexes and manor-house/park complexes in the Lublin region. The author also took into account the structures accompanying residential complexes, which are their integral part and functional complement. Special attention was paid to design patterns of garden art developed both in Poland and abroad.

Open access

Małgorzata Stępnik

Abstract

Over the last decades Reykjavik has transformed from a culturally insignificant place into one of the most significant art centers in the world, both in the realm of so-called high arts and alternative culture. Its cultural life inspires and even astonishes. Especially those who come to visit Reykjavik for the first time may be overwhelmed by the number of museums and galleries functioning in that small area, as well as the amount of events dedicated to various branches of art. The main purpose of the article is to describe important places of interest, characterizing the architectural landscape of Reykjavik, and - most of all - to present those prominent artists who have contributed greatly to the evolution of Icelandic art. Special emphasis has been placed on depicting Erró’s artistic oeuvre. In his paintings, Guðmundur Guðmundsson - as this is Erró’s real name - smartly and compellingly combines surrealistic imagery with iconography typical of Pop Art. What is more, his rhetoric, sometimes bitter and strongly critical, enables us to classify his canvases as belonging to the Narrative Figuration. Separate paragraphs also discuss inter alia the specificity of Icelandic architecture (e.g. the Harpa concert hall with the façade designed by Olafur Eliasson), or the works of the eminent sculptor Einar Jónsson. Reykjavik as a crucible of culture, a veritable volcano of art, attracts internationally recognized artists like Yoko Ono, whose light installation titled Peace Tower was built on the islet of Viðey.

Open access

Tomasz Jasiński

Abstract

The article is devoted to a previously entirely unknown vocal-instrumental mass preserved in St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała. Missa in Dis - signed with Mozart’s name - is a composition based on the material of Mozart’s singspiel Die Zauberflöte. The article contains the description of the manuscript and its history, discusses the question of the forces of the mass, the problem of mutual relationships between the sound substance of Missa in Dis and The Magic Flute, and dwells extensively on the question of who the author of the piece was: between a hypothesis that the mass might have been composed by Mozart and a supposition that we are dealing with a late 18th/early 19th-century mystification concerning the composer.

Open access

Renata Gozdecka

Abstract

The main assumption of the article is to show the motif of three cities - Jerusalem, Paris and New York - in selected works from different areas of art treating the urban subject matter as the main source of inspiration. The choice of the cities was motivated by many factors, inter alia by historical, and geographical, cultural and linguistic, and by architectural differences. In the sphere of music - the main field of observation - the works by Krzysztof Penderecki (Seven Gates of Jerusalem), George Gershwin (An American in Paris), Steve Reich (City life), and by Wojciech Kilar (September Symphony) were chosen. At the same time these compositions prompt one to look at them from the perspective of their corre spondence with other spheres of art: architecture, painting, literature, and film. Selected works from other fields of art, chiefly from painting, were discussed (inter alia those by Rembrandt van Rijn, Wandalin Strzałecki, Jan Sawka, Olga Boznańska, Ludwik de Laveaux, and by American painters of the late 19th/early 20th century), which make reference to the above compositions in question, first of all because of their multiple contexts. An important goal of the present article is also to show the possibilities of using the presented content in interdisciplinary teaching, in particular in application to education in high school.

Open access

Jadwiga I Tomasz Jasińscy

Abstract

The collection of old musical objects in St. Nicholas Church in Bielsko-Biała, which come from the late 18th century through the second half of the 19th century, is worth noting particularly for its manuscripts. This time it is not their repertory content we are interested in but their esthetic aspect. Many of the copies are manuscripts made extremely carefully, with great attention to the legibility and appearance of the musical notation and the verbal text. The majority of the manuscripts were written on handmade paper and the entries were made with concentrated ink, which turned out to be durable until the present. What is most important, however, is that some of the Bielsko manuscripts are far more than just the products of solid craft of scriptors: they exhibit such graphic and decorative characteristics that in many cases we could say that we are dealing with products that are very close to the sphere of fine arts. Indisputable esthetic values are discernible inter alia in the perfectly ordered manner of and well-formed musical notation, beautiful and highly calligraphic kinds of handwriting, decorated title pages, exquisite initials and other ornaments, and finally, the fine signatures of copyists and manuscript owners.