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Open access

Georgios C. Baltos, Filippa S. Chomata and Ioannis G. Vidakis

Abstract

This paper describes how the standardization essentially, rather than referring to goals, outputs and outcomes, addresses duties, roles and actions, while eventually the latter ones affect and empower the former. The quest for quality is still on-going in pursuit of effectiveness and efficiency combined with social responsibility, as long as it is dependent upon societies’ willingness to change the world and share a better future. Although organizations have a long way to walk toward synergism and integration, quality management is being transformed from compliance to collaboration driven. The wide range of standards implementing the quality management systems based on ISO 9001 materializes its strategic direction to be functionally adapted to specific sectors and industries. On the other hand, plenty of later standards deal with the additional requirements that are applicable only to specific industries. They surely carry pros and cons. There is, however, a threatening likelihood that the relevant markets would reject some of the standards in case multiple standards overlap each other, creating complex bureaucratic burdens. Health and Safety standards are a success story against such concerns, while a plethora of Control and Risk management standards compete each other, which may be perceived more as a source of creativity rather than confusion.

Open access

Andrew Onwuemele

Abstract

Flood risks are considered as one of the most devastating natural disasters. Presently, flooding occurs in all the ecological zones in Nigeria which has been linked to global warming. In Lagos Megacity, the incidence of flooding is now a reoccurring decimal which is only an indication of the failure of the existing mechanism for flood risk reduction. Knowledge of public perception of flood risk is considered a crucial element for a proactive preparedness for flood risk reduction. This study is aimed at gaining insight into the public perception of flood risks for proactive flood risks preparedness among residents in flood prone areas in Lagos megacity, Nigeria. The survey research design was utilized. Data were collected by questionnaire from residents of flood prone neighbourhoods in the city. The results show high awareness of flood risks among respondents that have experienced flooding previously than respondents that have not experienced flooding in the past. It also reveals poor preparedness among respondents that have not experienced flooding. The paper calls for public awareness creation among residents in flood prone areas of the city as a strategy to promote preparedness for flood disaster risks reduction in the city.

Open access

Nguyen Thi Mai Hong and Vu Hong Nhung

Abstract

The article presents the reality of Poverty Reduction work at Bavi commune, Bavi district, Hanoi city, Vietnam today, obtained results, difficulties, drawbacks and its causes, then, the article claims the essential role and specific strengths of social workers majoring in poverty reduction to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction on the basis of sustainable development goals today.

Open access

Alqi Naqellari

Abstract

This paper analyzes Internal Aggregate Demand. This aggregate, along with other production indicators, is the main indicator of the country’s economic performance rate. Objective analysis is important for their perspective, as well as for a set of other related indicators, such as inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc. In economic theory, the Aggregate Demand Curve (AD) deals with negative slope. At the point where AD interrupts the AS (aggregate supply curve) there is macroeconomic equilibrium. Creating this equilibrium, shifting curves, creates a number of other figures that show how the level of output, prices and employment will be, and overall the level of economy in the future. In this study, with the data of the Albanian economy, was built, for a period of 17 years, the Internal Demand Curve. Three effects are analyzed: the real balance sheet effect, the interest rates and the external trade effect. The internal demand curve has resulted in a Positive Slope. The equilibrium is not created at the intersection point of the curves. These curves stand facing each other. The equilibrium is set by the different aggregate price level. The Gross Domestic Product Curve (GDP) is the equilibrium curve created by the interaction of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. This position is real, and creates opportunities for objective analysis of the economy. This paper uses econometric, statistical, comparative and synthesis methods.

Open access

Jani Sota

Abstract

This is now a well known axiom, that to judge the level of emancipation of a particular society, one should know the extent of her education. Because of the system’s nature, Albanian and foreign historiography has not been tackling a lot with the problems of higher education after 1990, seeing it from the perspective of the interests of the Albanian democratic state anyway, in terms of the transition, although with difficulties, efforts to change were not interrupted. The transition from totalitarianism to pluralist democracy and a free market economy also raised the issue of a radical change in the education field, a radical restructure, a radical democratic reform throughout work and life. Everything that happened after this period, especially in higher education, destroyed the “foundations” of the traditional high school influence by marxism-leninism, paving the way to new decentralized changes to achieve the highest quality indicators, through the step by step perfection of the university documentation, and efforts for the preparation of specialists, who are able to have direct access in manufacturing as well. The transformation of higher education began when our country was undergoing the transition period. In this study we will focus on the general analysis of the efforts of the Albanian government in front of incomplete standards in the higher educational system, reorganization of the school, in the framework of the change of the political system and the tranformation of socio-economic in Albania. Then it will be elaborated the intensity of changes and the results that are obviously noticed from one stage to the other, also some aspects of the reorganization process and the consolidation of higher education.

Open access

Alma Sheko and Alma Braimllari Spaho

Abstract

The development of information technology has simplified the exchange of information between different parts of the supply chain. Information quality plays an important role in enhancing supply chain performance. The aim of this research was to explore the relationships between SCM-IT inhibitors, IT enablers, information sharing, and information quality in supply chain management. Data for 183 business units operating in Vlore, Albania during 2017 were analyzed. Direct and mediating or indirect effects were also analyzed. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), an advanced statistical technique with the help of Smart-PLS version 3.2.7. PLS algorithm was used to determine the factor loadings and path coefficients in the theoretical model. The study has concluded that SCM-IT inhibitors have a negative and significant effect on information quality; the mediation effect of information sharing was significant, the mediation effect of IT enablers was significant; however, the multiple mediation effects of IT enablers and information sharing was not significant. These findings are useful for top management and IT specialists of the business units, and also for information technology services and products providers.

Open access

Aranit Muja

Abstract

The aim of this research paper is to study the properties of intraday returns, in a time range from one to fifteen minutes. In order to perform this analysis, we consider four sets of historical intraday returns for FTSE-MIB index. The first series consist of intraday returns with one-minute frequency, represented in log scale, which includes the period from 01.04.2011 till 30.09.2011. The consideration period for the other series does not vary, but the frequencies which we calculate the returns with, do. In detail, we took in consideration returns generated in 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. First, the study analyses the distribution of intraday returns by employing both graphical methods and moments calculation on different time scales. Secondly, the study analyses the returns maximum distribution on different time scales, checking the type GEV (Generalized Extreme value) returns distribution goodness of fit. The GEV parameters estimation was made by maximum likelihood using EVIM1 toolbox in Matlab.

Open access

Julejda Aliaj Gërxhi and Enkelejda Haxhiraj

Abstract

The franchise contract was a type of contract used frequently in trading during the Middle Ages. However, for almost a century, this contract is being used by business law entities, which want to enter the business and have a bigger profit. Regardless of the technical-legislative elements or special features of the parties’ juridical-civil relationship, franchising contract is a form of business. It is considered to be one of the easiest contracts in civilian use by different persons, not only about the innovations provided from the commercial aspect, but also as a reflection of modernity and the progress in trading.The franchise contract is a concept envisioned by Albanian legislation, but practically it has been implemented rarely and not in line with current domestic market requirements. In these conditions, its application has provided disputes between the signatory subjects. For this reason, the essence of this work will be not only the legal-civilian understanding of the franchise contract, but also the way this contract is implemented in Albania. The study will be based on the use of the analytical method of advantages that the franchise contract application aims to produce by referring to its legal-civilian analysis. We also aim to use the comparative method of implementation of this contract in Western countries. This study will present the advantages that the franchise contract produces b from the civil law aspect, in view of its practical implementation by the contracting parties. This study aims to move forward in a more in-depth analysis of the franchise contract in the Albanian reality and the shortcomings that this contract presents, in relation to the most developed countries. Also, franchising does not operates only through a simple, typical contract, but transforms and is transformed in a variety of ways, which should be analyzed so that to point out and reveal the product of franchising and the benefits it brings to the contracting parties.

Open access

Aranit Shkurti

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationships between energy consumption and GDP growth for 6 Western Balkan countries over 10 years period from 2005 to 2014. The countries under consideration are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, FYR. The aim of this study is to evaluate the energy demand across time and within these countries. The other variables that are considered in the model are the Electricity use per capita, the Oil price referred to Crude Oil International markets price expressed in USD and the exchange rate. Recently, numerous empirical studies have been conducted to detect this relationship, but not specifically to the Western Balkan region. There are general characteristics, due to the common historical background, but also specific patterns of the economic structure shaping the energy demand of each country. The main approaches to energy demand modeling are the Bottom-up and Top Down approaches. Currently important research is conveying also toward the Hybrid models. The demand in this countries is very susceptible to external oscillations, leading to severe exogenous impacts on the long term equilibrium, fitting more towards a top down macroeconometric model.

Open access

Dauda Moses, Nasiru Bello Mohammed, Amos Danlami Agbu and Lumo Adams Gainaka

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the level of digitization of Educational Technology Centres for teaching electrical and electronics technology in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria in order to provide information that will help solve problems of incompetence of public school students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study, guided by two research questions and two hypotheses was conducted in six Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria using descriptive survey research design. The sample of the study was 50 comprising of 15 non-teaching Educational Technology Centres staff and 35 Electrical and Electronics Technology lecturers from five colleges of education in North Eastern Nigeria. Checklist containing 103 expected digital facilities based on National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) minimum standard for Educational Technology Facilities in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria was used as instrument for data collection. Respondents were required to fill in observed facilities in the required column. Arithmetic percentage and Chi–square test of goodness-of-fit and were used determine the extent of digitization of the Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria. Findings of the study revealed among others that analog technologies has higher number of frequency counts compared to digital technologies, hence there was low digitization of hardware facilities in Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria were not digitized for instructional purposes; therefore, Government should digitize Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria by adequately providing both digital hard and soft ware facilities.