Joanna Zembrzuska, Dobrochna Ginter-Kramarczyk, Anna Zając, Izabela Kruszelnicka, Michał Michałkiewicz, Zbysław Dymaczewski, Anna Piątkowska and Magdalena Wawrzyniak
The article presents results regarding the ibuprofen reduction rate at three various temperature values (8, 18 and 28 °C) which were conducted using a static test in accordance with the PN-C-04645 ‘Water and wastewater. Evaluation of partial biodegradation of anionic and non-ionic surface active substances. Initial test’ standard. A single study cycle including the analysis of ibuprofen degradation rate in specific temperature variants lasted 24 h. The activated sludge for tests was obtained from the aeration zone of a bioreactor localized in the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in Poznan City (Poland), which was used for inoculation (1 g/dm3) of sterile samples with the medium and ibuprofen (10 mg/dm3) after appropriate pre-treatment (intense aeration for 5 h). The analysis procedure included the separation and concentration of analytes from biodegradation samples by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent determination with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using an UltiMate 3000 RSLC liquid chromatogram (Dionex, USA) with a tandem API 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer (Biosystem, MDS Sciex, USA). Both literature review as well as the conducted initial studies confirmed that the removal of ibuprofen proceeds more rapidly at higher temperature values. A higher retention rate also enhanced the reduction of ibuprofen concentration. A decrease of its concentration was observed after 24 h, which reached 40 and 50 % for temperature values of 8 and 18 °C, accordingly, whereas the highest reduction by approx. 65 % was noted at 28 °C.
Larisa Sabliy, Yevgeniy Kuzminskiy, Veronika Zhukova, Marina Kozar and Henryk Sobczuk
The article presents the developed anaerobic-aerobic wastewater treatment technologies. These technologies aimed at removing the organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus by means of microorganisms immobilized on fibrous carrier surfaces. The results of the laboratory research show the high efficiency of milk wastewater treatment. The following degrees of reduction were achieved for the pollutant indicators: COD -86.7-93 %, total nitrogen - 96.9-97.9 %. Compared to the traditional treatment technologies applied in Ukraine, these values are high. The concentration of organic matters and biomass of not attached bacteria decreased in bioreactor chambers. When the purification process ends, a small amount of excess biomass remains; therefore, its self-oxidation and self-regulation occurs as a result of consumption by the organisms occupying higher levels of trophic chains. The use of anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors system for the treatment of wastewater enables achieving high outflow quality and prevents the suspended substances from slipping. Immobilization of microorganisms on the first stage of the technology prevents the formation of big amount of excessive sludge and removes biomass from the bioreactor, which allows the technology even for the heavily polluted wastewater. In reactors containing immobilized microorganisms, the organic matter compounds used in subsequent reactors for phosphate accumulation are split. The presented biotechnology saves electric energy, provides sufficient quality of treatment, and ensure the compliance of treated wastewater with the effluent standards.
A model for calculating the maximal theoretical production of hydrogen from corn wastes is proposed. The model has been used to estimate the potential for hydrogen production from cereals wastes such as wheat, barley, and corn which are cultivated in Poland. The potentials for Pomorze and other regions of Poland are compared. The hydrogen produced from cereal wastes in Poland could potentially meet 47 % of national hydrogen demand.
Marta Marszałek, Zygmunt Kowalski and Agnieszka Makara
Pig slurry is a heterogeneous mixture of faeces, urine, undigested remains of feed items and water used for flushing of animal excrement and to maintain the proper hygiene of livestock housing. It is formed on farms which use the non-bedding system of pig breeding i.e. animals are kept on the partially or fully slatted floors. According to the Polish law pig slurry is defined as a liquid natural fertilizer intended for agricultural use. The storage and application of pig slurry on arable land affect the surroundings and may create a number of serious risks related to, among others, the pollution of water-soil environment with biogenic elements, heavy metals, pathogens and pharmaceuticals. The article presents the reasons for the occurrence of excessive amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc and antibiotics in pig slurry. The possibility of microbial and pharmaceutical contamination of water, soil and plants as well as their pollution with biogens and heavy metals as a result of improper storage and excessive spreading of pig slurry have been characterized. Moreover, methods of preventing the above-mentioned threats with reference to Polish and EU legal acts have been discussed.
To investigate the retention efficiency and mechanism of nitrogen of Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area, simulated runoff discharging experiments were carried out in a new-established Bermuda VFS. The results showed that the Bermuda VFS reduced 73.1-86.1 % of surface runoff through infiltration. The outflow rate of runoff increased first and then became stable with time. The concentration reduction rates (CRRs) and load reduction rates (LRRs) of NH3-N increased initially and then decreased with the increase of inflow concentration. The average CRRs and LRRs of NH3-N in three treatments ranged 66.1-90.3 % and 90.0-96.7 %, respectively. The concentration reduction of NH3-N was primarily achieved by soil adsorption. The optimal inflow concentration of NH3-N for the optimum CRR was between 0.65 and 3.52 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of NO3-N fluctuated between 6.8-14.0 % and 72.0-77.9 % in three treatments. The concentration reduction of NO3-N was primarily achieved by plant uptake and soil microbe assimilation. The optimal inflow concentration of NO3-N for optimum CRR exceeded 6.78 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of TN increased with the increase of inflow concentrations. The average CRRs in the low, moderate and high treatments reached 9.7, 14.8 and 27.4 %, respectively, and the average LRRs reached 72.1, 74.3 and 81.2 %, respectively. The optimal inflow concentration of TN for optimum CRR exceeded 10.21 mg/dm3. The study showed that Bermuda grass can retain nitrogen in runoff efficiently and should be promoted around the Danjiangkou reservoir.
Krzysztof Gondek, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Michał Kopeć, Jakub Sikora, Tomáš Lošák and Piotr Grzybowski
In the course of analysing sewage sludge biochar (BC) as a material containing phosphorus loads, we determined the following: effect of thermal conversion of three different sewage sludge biochars on the content and availability of P in biochars (BC-1, BC-2 BC-3), effect of their application on selected forms of P in soil and on the accumulation of this component in Poa pratensis L. biomass. Regardless of the type of BC, the contents of P-H2O and P-CaCl2 were lower than the contents determined in unconverted sewage sludge. A significant increase in the content of P-CaCl2 compared to the control was noted in the soil of treatments where 1 and 2 % additions of BC-2 and BC-3 were applied. Soil pH (r = 0.826; p ≤ 0.05) and the content of Ca-exchangeable (r = 0.712; p ≤ 0.05) had the strongest effect on the content of P-CaCl2 in soil; however, no significant relationship was found between the amount of P-introduced with BC, the contents of Al-ox., Fe-ox. and the content of P-CaCl2. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the phosphorus content in plant biomass was noted in all treatments compared to the control. Regardless of the type of biochar applied, the highest amount of P-uptake was determined in treatments where the greatest addition of BC (2 %) was introduced into the soil. A significant relationship between P-uptake and the amount of P-introduced with BC into the soil (r = 0.726; p ≤ 0.05) was demonstrated.
Liliana Cepoi, Inga Zinicovscaia, Tatiana Chiriac, Liudmila Rudi, Nikita Yushin and Vera Miscu
In order to assess ability of Spirulina platensis to recover silver and gold ions from the environment the bioaccumulation of silver and gold ions and their effect on growth, proteins and carbohydrates content of Spirulina platensis biomass was studied. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) in concentration range 0.01-1 mg/dm3 and tetrachloroaurate Na[AuCl4] in concentration range 18.5-370 mg/dm3 were added as component of the Spirulina platensis cultivation medium. In case of silver two cultivation media were studied: standard and Cl-free. The process of silver and gold uptake was traced using neutron activation analysis. Presence of silver ions in standard cultivation medium reduced biomass productivity by 66 %, while in Cl-free biomass productivity was reduced by 11.8 % only. The reduction of proteins content by 30 % in Cl-free medium and by 19 % in standard medium was also observed. The experiments showed that in case of gold ions loading, the biomass productivity and protein content were reduced only at high Na[AuCl4] concentration in the medium. The behaviour of carbohydrates content change was similar under silver and gold loadings: decrease at low metal concentration followed by increase at high metal concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy allowed observation of spherical metal nanoparticles, which were formed extracellularly during silver and gold bioaccumulation. Spirulina platensis can be used for recovery of precious metals as well as metal nanoparticles production.
Global concern on dyes-laden effluent has intensified over the years. Dyes are toxic, stable to light, and hardly oxidized and bio-degraded, hence causing severe physiological effects to living organisms. In water, dye hinders the light penetration for photosynthetic activity, consequently oxygen is deficient for respiration by aquatic creatures. Adsorption has been widely recognized as the effective removal strategy to abate dye wastewater. However, the quests to improve the adsorption efficiency are continuously sought through new adsorbents with special characters, while performing the removal process at optimum operating conditions. This short review aims to summarize the recent progress in adsorption studies of two commonly used industrial dyes, namely malachite green and congo red by various adsorbents. From the quoted studies, the oxidized mesoporous carbon yields a higher adsorption capacity of malachite green at 1265 mg/g, while Fe3O4@nSiO2@mSiO2 displays a greater capacity for congo red removal at 1429 mg/g. A superior adsorption relies not only on specific surface area but also the synergistic interactions of pore width and mesoporosity, surface chemistry, and operating conditions. The dyes properties and factors affecting the adsorption are also highlighted and discussed, with recommendations and future outlook.
Effective diffusion coefficients for different heavy-metal salts: Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Pb in calcium alginate beads were determined. Their values depended on the metal type, anion from the metal salt, and the alginate content in the beads. The results of calculations indicate a decrease in the values of De, caused by an increase in the alginate content in the alginate sorbent beads. This is in agreement with the mechanism of the diffusion process taking place in porous carriers. Experimental data were found to be in good agreement with the mathematical model, as indicated by high values of the correlation coefficient.
Hana Bělíková, Martin Mészáros, Ladislav Varga, Július Árvay, Barbara Wiśniowska-Kielian, Krzysztof Gondek, Jacek Antonkiewicz, Stanislav Torma, Boris Lazarević, Eduardo Von Bennewitz and Tomáš Lošák
From 2014 to 2015 the influence of foliar application of sulphur on apple trees (Gloster cv.)was investigated in the apple orchard at the Research and Breeding Institute of Pomology in Holovousy (North-East Bohemia, Czech Republic). The experiment was based on foliar applications of fertilizers containing different forms of sulphur: elemental S0, sulphate SO42− and thiosulphate S2O32− (in combination with other macro- and microelements) and fungicides with or without sulphur: Kumulus (S0 + F) and the conventional fungicide programme (F), in the respective treatments. Apple scab incidence on leaves and fruits was investigated in each experimental year according to the relevant methodology of the OEPP/EPPO standard PP1/5(3) Venturia inaequalis. Data on the incidence of apple scab correlate with the process of pathogen life cycle and risk of infection on the given dates. The incidence of apple scab was the lowest in 2014 in treatment S0 + F (10.8 % on leaves, 2.8 % on fruits) and F (15.8 % on leaves, 6 % on fruits) where conventional fungicides were used. When compared with the other treatments these treatments were the most effective even if the incidence of scab in the individual treatments in 2015 increased by 28 to 60 % due to high infection pressure. The results confirmed the efficiency of the conventional fungicide programme (S0 + F and F) against apple scab incidence on fruits. What is more, the results were slightly better in the treatment, where the conventional fungicide programme was combined with fertilizer containing elemental S (S0 + F) in comparison with fungicides applied alone (F). The effect of the other forms of sulphur (SO4 and S2O3) on apple scab control has not been confirmed. According to the results, the application of the conventional fungicide programme (S0 + F and F) is more effective against scab incidence than the inorganic forms of sulphur alone.