This paper observes the short-run effects of stock market index composition changes on stock returns on the Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE). In that way, event study methodology is employed in order to estimate abnormal returns and compare them amongst three subsets of stocks: those leaving the market index, those entering it, and constantly included stocks. The research included 14 regular and extraordinary revisions of the market index in the period from January 2nd, 2015 until March 21st, 2018. The results have confirmed two research hypotheses: stock exclusions from the market index have a negative effect on stock returns on the ZSE, which is consistent with the price pressure hypothesis; and there exist asymmetric effects of index composition changes on stock returns. This is the first study of this kind on the Croatian stock market, thus more questions need to be answered in future research.
Amila Pilav-Velić, Hatidža Jahić, Jasmina Okičić and Meldina Kokorović-Jukan
Education plays a central role in today’s understanding of growth and development dynamics. However, its relationship with other factors is complex. This paper aims to investigate the effect of different forms of education on youth employability in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This is done by using the USAID MEASURE – BiH National Youth Survey. Research has shown that formal education and non-formal education through internship programmes, volunteering, paid jobs other than internships are significant predictors of youth employment status. The study also has several implications for academics and practitioners since it provides new insights into both employment patterns and practices in one transition economy but also calls for further analysis of the link between education, formal and non-formal, and youth employment.
This article provides an upgraded model for actuarial projection of the dependency ratio of the pension fund in the Republic of Srpska. The nonexistence of complete upto-date life tables presents a huge problem of the pension system and life insurance industry modelling in the Republic of Srpska. Therefore, this article tries to encompass the problem by using the life tables of the Republic of Croatia as a starting point for adjustment of age-grouped life tables available for population of the Republic of Srpska. The actuarial projection model for the Pension and Disability Insurance Fund of the Republic of Srpska is upgraded by using these adjusted life tables and the best estimate mortality trend for mortality forecasting. The results of the Republic of Srpska pension fund dependency ratio projections obtained using a forecast of adjusted life tables are compared to the previous research on this topic which used the life tables of the Republic of Serbia for 2013 for the same model. This way we can observe the effect of life expectancy growth on pension fund’s dependency ratio estimates as one of the measures of pension fund’s sustainability.
The official statistics framework is based on internationally agreed standards, taking into account the core principles of impartiality, objectivity, professional independence, cost effectiveness, statistical confidentiality, minimisation of the reporting burden and high output quality. Since the latest 2007 global economic crisis, a growing demand for more, better and timelier data under limited resources for compilers and reporting agents has been observed. The concept of experimental statistics becomes more relevant, despite the lower quality in terms of coverage, data sources and harmonised definitions. The main aim of this paper is to present the methodological development of the residential property price index in Croatia from experimental to official statistics, as well as to show corresponding changes in time, which occurred due to the changes in methodological framework, institutional responsibility for compilation, coverage and data sources. A general conclusion of the paper is that publication of non-harmonized experimental statistics results, together with explanatory metadata, is better from the point of view of users than having nothing produced by official statistics.
The view on banks as investments in Croatia is challenged by two phenomena: dual holdings (owners are intensely involved in bank balance sheet as, apart from equity, they provide a significant portion of deposits and loans) and the impediments to determining the cost of equity (as only a handful of banks are traded and with questionable liquidity in the capital market). The paper contributes to the literature by applying the panel regression on the translog cost function in order to calculate the shadow cost of equity for banks in Croatia for the period from 1994 to 2016. In the next step, the Economic Value Added was calculated by taking into account the dual holding role of bank owners. The results suggest that the shareholders economic value is significantly different from the accounting value. In addition, it seems that the standard view that domestic banks are less profitable than foreign banks is only valid from the accounting perspective.
Veronika Fenyves, Elvira Böcskei, Zoltán Bács, Zoltán Zéman and Tibor Tarnóczi
The main aim of the study to examine the extent to which the companies of a specific Hungarian sector fulfil their obligation to provide information in their notes to the financial statements as stipulated by the Accounting Act. Accordingly, it should be examined whether the notes to financial statements contains the required data regarding the balance sheets of companies investigated. For the analyses, it was used the notes to the financial statement of 8,226 companies with Hungarian headquarters, which are regulated by the Hungarian Accounting Act and which have information-technology services as the main business activity. It was investigated 95.78% of the financial reports containing the notes. The analysis was performed using text mining method, utilizing every available notes to the financial statement of the sector. Findings of the study reveal that the amount of published information shows greater and lesser differences and in many cases, the quantity of published data does not fulfil even the minimal obligations stipulated legally.
Mykolas Navickas, Vytautas Juščius and Valentinas Navickas
In this article the relationship between shadow economy and its’ determinants has been examined. Ten Eastern countries from European Union were chosen due to specific particularities, which may cause higher shadow economy levels in the investigated countries compared with the EU average. Time span of 2003-2016 was selected, as 2017 data has yet to be released at the time of the analysis. Article consists of examination of the current situation and shadow economy trends in Eastern European countries; overview of shadow economy scientific literature followed by hypothesis, which are examined by constructing regression models. Models aim to distinguish the relationship between selected determinants and shadow economy size. Scientific literature analysis revealed that increase of tax burden on labor is seen as a primary reason for the increase of shadow economy, however, such relation has not been identified. Furthermore, results show that unemployment and self-employed people ratio affect shadow economy insignificantly. This suggests that further analysis is needed. Nonetheless, regression model has not rejected the hypotheses of corruption level, income inequality, business freedom and GDP per capita effect on shadow economy. Thus, it can be stated that these variables are determinants of shadow economy in Eastern European countries.