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Challenges That Make/Break the Athlete’s Quest to Become an Entrepreneur: A Qualitative Study About Fans’ Perceptions

Abstract

Athletes are a new type of celebrity in the world. Following other celebrities, there are several examples of athletes who have used their persona of fame to go a step further with their so-called personal brands and actually launch products carrying their names. As athletes are considered brands in themselves, these sorts of activities (i.e., introducing a product brand) are considered as an extension of the athlete’s brand. Given the nature of the research, this study employed a qualitative design. A purposeful convenience sampling technique was employed to select study participants according to a set of predetermined criteria. The final sample comprised nine fans. The fans identified five major factors that could be important in the context of an athlete’s decision to start his/her own brand. The five identified factors that could decide the fate of an athlete’s brand extensions were the athlete’s origin, extension fit, gender, performance, and impression. According to fans, these factors play an important role in the athlete’s venture as an entrepreneur. The study suggests that although fans understand that athletes are brands in themselves, Pakistani fans are not fond of the idea of athletes becoming entrepreneurs due to the fans’ emotional attachment to the athletes. As this is the first study expressing fans’ perspectives in the context of athlete brand extension, this study is an addition to the academic literature and theories of athlete branding and athletes as entrepreneurs.

Open access
Etes-vous pret? Partez! – The Late Start of Women Rowers

Abstract

The aim of our study is to show the development of women's rowing and competition, as well as the reasons for its slow spread, taking into account the so called decisive era, the social environment, which, although in various ways, has greatly influenced it all over the world. One of the major research methods for collecting data was document analysis: we used the volumes of Gusztáv Götz's legacy1found in the sports history collection of the Hungarian Rowing Federation, whose spirit we also tried to preserve. In these volumes we found and analysed congressional reports, resolutions made by the national rowing federations, professional articles on rowing and papers on sports medicine. In addition, we studied the relevant literature, namely, studies dealing with the era from sociological, sports sociological and sports historical perspectives. Moreover, via membership in the Traditionalist Committee of the Hungarian Rowing Federation we had the opportunity to meet the great Hungarian female rowing champions of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, and we prepared structured in-depth interviews with them. Meeting most often with Anna Domonkos1, Ágnes Bán1, Zsuzsanna Rakitay1. The results show that the international rowing society was divided, the social and medical discourse differed from each other in the assessment of women's sports, sports historical traditions varied country by country and international sports politics also played a decisive role in the delay. With the results, our paper is intended to give a more thorough picture of the reasons why women's competition in rowing has expanded so slowly than the previous analyses did.

Open access
Hermenuticals of Human Movement and Sport: Holism and Harmony

Abstract

The paper deals with the hermeneutical approach to active human movement and sport. This topic has been more frequently examined in literature since 2010. This paper focuses on holism and harmony within the hermeneutics of sport. Some specific holistic approaches based on different viewpoints are described here. The key task of the middle part of the paper is to question and search for authentic meanings in sport. In this context, the theory of kinestructs and kinascepts by Eleaonor Metheny is briefly explained. The final part of the paper attempts to summarize possibilities for uncovering a deeper sense of human movement in the context of holism.

Open access
Karate: Emotions and Movement Anticipation

Abstract

Introduction The following paper is a case study developed to investigate the possible relationship between mirror neurons and karate. In karate, athletes are often trained to anticipate the opponent’s movement and to consider their emotions (Dosil 2006). This kind of training and skill may be linked to the concept related to mirror neurons, which are connected to the identification of the intention behind an action and are involved in a sort of automatic empathy of “really feeling what another person is feeling or going to do” (Carey 2006). Methods The research is an introductive literary review about martial arts and the theory of mirror neurons and provides a case study based on interviews. Participants have been asked to answer five questions related to the topic. All of them are expert athletes at the black belt level or with at least 10 years of training experience.

Open access
The Positive Effects of a Combined Program of Creative Dance and BrainDance on Health-Related Ouality of Life as Perceived by Primary School Students

Abstract

The combination of Creative Dance and BrainDance within the context of physical education could be a promising innovation. This combined program can be implemented in primary school to help students achieve a better and more holistic assessment of their Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), covering aspects of physical, emotional, social, and mental functioning and well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact that a combined Creative Dance and BrainDance program based on the Laban Theory of Movement Analysis has on HRQoL perceptions of primary school students when this program is implemented within the context of the physical education curriculum in primary school. For this purpose, an eight-week educational intervention was designed combining Creative Dance and BrainDance into one single program. The survey sample consisted of 32 fifth- and sixth-grade primary school students. The Kidscreen-52 questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed with the use of descriptive statistical indices and mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). Although the results showed no differences between the beginning and end of the educational intervention, a fact that might be due to the small sample and the time of the implementation of the program (limited to 8 weeks), its implementation produced very good results with regard to improvisation, body control, balance, and coordination, as well as kinaesthetic awareness and musical rhythmic skills. Creative Dance and BrainDance promote imagination, creativity, improvisation, and self-esteem in general, particularly in primary school students..

Open access
Segmentation by Motivational Factors of Fantasy Football Consumers and Differences Among Segments

Abstract

Market segmentation and consumer motivation are among the most important concepts utilized in the prediction and explanation of consumer behavior. Although fantasy sports consumption has shown a remarkable growth in recent years, there has been limited research on the characteristics of participants of this activity, motivational factors influencing participation, and the effects of these factors on consumer behavior and preferences. For this purpose, we aimed to reveal the motives of fantasy football consumers, to comprise motivational market segments, and to show the potential differences between the segments in terms of experience. In the present study, we used non-hierarchical clustering (K-mean analysis) and hierarchical clustering (Ward cluster algorithm) analyses to determine the number of segments. In addition, we analyzed the potential differences between segments using ANOVA and chi-square analyses. As a result, we found that fantasy football consumers were classified into three different segments (loyal gamblers, hedonists, and casual players) with a motivational basis for the different behavioral responses. According to difference analysis, the consumers who are in different segments were found to be statistically different in terms of consumption behavior and experiential characteristics. The theoretical and practical effects of the study results were evaluated for academicians and practitioners.

Open access
“We show that we are men”: the Dominant Masculinity Profile of the Portoan Ultra-groups

Abstract

The ultra-groups that support football clubs have been present in Portugal since the 1970s. Despite this support, performed with many chants and choreographies, the ultra-groups are reported mostly due to violent situations caused by their members. Based on an investigation of four ultra-groups that support football clubs in Oporto that was performed through lengthy observation, interviews, and surveys, this text highlights the characteristics of the dominant masculine profile present in these ultra-groups. The dimensions that allowed for the outline of this profile arise from theoretical perspectives reflecting gender and masculinity as an explanatory dimension of the aggressive behavior of hooligans and ultra-group members. These were briefly dealt in this text. They are composed of key features resulting from research about gender and masculinity in the Portoan ultra-groups, enabling their outlines. The physical and verbal violence, leadership profile, body display, homophobic discourse, and gendered exclusion expressed in the words, chants, and iconography of the ultra-groups allow for the definition of the key characteristics of the aggressive dominant masculine profile present in these Portoan ultra-groups.

Open access
An Accurate and Rapid System to Identify Play Patterns in Tennis Using Video Recording Material: Break Point Situations as a Case Study

Abstract

The goal of this study was to present an accurate and rapid detection system to identify patterns in tennis, based on t-pattern analysis. As a case study, the break point situations in the final matches of the clay court tournaments played during the seasons 2011 and 2012 between the tennis players Novak Djokovic and Rafael Nadal were chosen. The results show that Nadal achieves a higher conversion rate with respect to Djokovic in the break point situations, independent of the outcome of the match. Some repetitive patterns of both players were revealed in break point circumstances. In long rally sequences (higher than seven hits), the Spanish player won more break points, both serving and receiving, as a result of unforced errors of his opponent’s backhand. In medium rally sequences (between four and seven hits), other factors such as the type, direction or serve location have shown to play an important role in the outcome of the point. The study also reveals that Djokovic frequently commits double faults in these critical situations of the match. This is the first time that t-patterns have been used to analyze the sport of tennis. The technique is based on computer vision algorithms and video recording material to detect particular relationships between events and helps to discover the hidden mechanistic sequences of tennis players.

Open access
Analysis of Training Plans in Basketball: Gender and Formation Stage Differences

Abstract

Scientific literature has stated the presence of various stages in athletes sportive development, with different objectives in each one of them. This should lead coaches to different training plans according to the athlete’s formation stage. The aim of this study was to analyse training plans and identify differences in basketball objectives according to formative stages (U’12 and U’14) in boys and girls. A total of 1,976 training tasks were collected and analysed, for a total of four teams (girls and boys of U’12 and U’14 categories) during an entire season. Pedagogical variables, game phases, game situations, training means and content were studied. The results showed significant differences between genders. Girls’ teams performed more tasks on offense and technical skills. By contrast, boys’ teams performed more defensive tasks and tactical contents. The 1-on-0 and 1-on-1 were the most repeated game situations in all teams. Coaches used different training tasks according to gender and age. In male U’12 teams, drills predominated, whereas in the other categories, games predominated. For boys’ teams, the contents were tactical oriented, and for girls’ teams, the contents were oriented toward skill acquisition. Studying the pedagogical variables of the training process allowed for identification of the utility of training, assessment, and modification of this process.

Open access