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Effects of single and combined supplementation of dietary probiotic with bovine lactoferrin and xylooligosaccharide on hemato-immunological and digestive enzymes of silvery-black porgy (Sparidentex hasta) fingerlings

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic (Pro) with bovine lactoferrin (LF) and xylooligosacharide (XOS) on growth performance, hemato-immune response, body composition, digestive enzymes activity and expression of immune-related and growth-related genes of sobaity (Sparidentex hasta) for 8 weeks. Fish were fed with feed including: control diet (no LF, XOS and Pro inclusion), diet 1(400 mg kg−1 LF + 5000 mg kg−1 XOS), diet 2 (400 mg kg−1 LF + 10000 mg kg−1 XOS), diet 3 (400 mg kg−1 LF + 1 × 106 gr−1 Pro (L. plantarum)), diet 4 (800 mg kg−1 LF + 5000 mg kg−1 XOS), diet 5 (800 mg kg−1 LF + 10000 mg kg−1 XOS), diet 6 (800 mg kg−1 LF + 1 × 106 gr−1 Pro (L. plantarum)). Growth performance, hematological parameters (except for white blood cell counts), body composition and immune-related gene expression were not affected by different experimental groups (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, non-specific immune response (except for total immunoglobulin) and growth-related gene expression of treatments and control group significantly varied (P < 0.05). Digestive enzymes activity including total protease and amylase increased by supplementing diets with different combinations of immunostimulants (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that diets supplemented with selected levels of LF, XOS and L. plantarum could not improve growth performance, body composition and hemato-immune response, but improved digestive enzyme activities in S. hasta fingerlings.

Open access
Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Death Outcome in Children with Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Abstract

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is a consequence of immaturity at birth and it is still associated with relatively high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of fatal outcome in newborns with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.The research was designed as a case-control study nested in a retrospective cohort, and it enrolled newborns treated during 2015 at Pediatric Clinic of Clinical Center in Kragujevac. Diagnosis of NRDS and decision about the treatment were left at the discretion of attending pediatricians. The cases were patients with fatal outcome, while controls were randomly selected from the pool of survivors and matched with each case by gender in a ratio of 4:1.

The study included 371 newborns, of whom 201 (54.2%) were male and 170 (45.8%) female. Lethal outcome occurred in 36 newborns (9,7%). Significant association was found between death and APGAR score (ORadjusted: 0.516, 95% CI: 0.322-0.827), weight on delivery (ORadjusted: 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999), duration of hospitalization (ORadjusted: 0.901, 95% CI: 0.835-0.972) and mechanical ventilation (ORadjusted: 165.256, 95% CI: 7.616-3585.714).

Higher gestational age, higher birth weight, higher APGAR score and longer duration of hospitalization were singled out as protective factors, while use of mechanical ventilation increased the risk of death. Major limitations of the study were retrospective nature and relatively small number of identified cases. Postponing delivery and delivery in institution with neonatal intensive care unit are crucial for survival of newborns with NRDS.

Open access
Feeding complete concentrate pellets containing ground grains or blend of steam-flaked grains and other concentrate ingredients in ruminant nutrition – a review

Abstract

Feed industry has attempted to promulgate animal husbandry sector for feeding complete concentrate pellets containing ground grains in the ruminant nutrition and thus prevent farmers for making concentrate in their farms. Reducing particle size using pre-pelleting grinding and pressing materials during pellet formation, plus starch gelatinization by heat treatment in the conditioner are key factors determining the extent and rate of starch digestion in ingested pellets. If pre-pelleting grinding of corn and barley grain for using in the pelleted concentrate results ground materials of less than 1.8 mm mean particle size (specially in case of barley grain which is highly fermentable), then it increases the rate of fermentability in the rumen which it in turn increase the acidosis risk. Such situation and dissatisfaction from pellets feeding to ruminant have directed farmers to produce homemade mash concentrate which may include steam-flaked form of grains in the concentrate mixture. Pelleting process increases the time needed to collapse the pellet in the rumen so delays the access of microbes to fermentable organic matter. This counterbalance property was highly depends on pellet size with highest effect obtained using in 10 mm diameter pellets for cattle. Feeding separately steam-flaked grains (plus other pelleted/mash non-grain ingredients of concentrate) may results similar to the complete concentrate pellets having ground grains prepared according to optimized recommendations (pellet diameter and grain mean particle size). Nonetheless cost benefit studies are necessary to adopt one of two above optimized technologies that has higher starch utilization and lower fecal starch excretion by animal. In the situation where consuming steam-flaked grains has priority of application in the diet, it is strongly recommend to pellet non-grain portions of concentrate for obtaining numerous pellet advantages such as reducing transportation cost, dust, sorting and bird removal.

Open access
Functions of circular RNAs involved in animal skeletal muscle development – a review

Abstract

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified in the skeletal muscle of numerous species of animals. Their abundance, diversity, and their dynamic expression patterns have been revealed in various developmental stages and physiological conditions in skeletal muscles. Recently, studies have made known that circRNAs widely participate in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. They are also involved in other life processes such as functioning as microRNA (miRNA) sponges, regulators of splicing and transcription, and modifiers of parental gene expression with emerging pieces of evidence indicating a high chance of playing a vital role in several cells and tissues especially the muscles. Other research has emphatically stated that the growth and development of skeletal muscle are regulated by proteins as well as non-coding RNAs, which involve circRNAs. Therefore, circRNAs have been considered significant biological regulators for understanding the molecular mechanisms of myoblasts. Here, we discuss how circRNAs are abundantly expressed in muscle (myoblast) and their critical roles in growth and development.

Open access
Possible influence of social media on shaping the image of nurses on the Internet

Abstract

Introduction. Nowadays, a professional image is an important element of the identity of individual professions. Its formation is a difficult process, dependent on many factors, including the use of new communication channels, such as social media, which in recent years have become a space for expressing social opinion, including those concerning individual professions.

Aim. The analysis of the possibilities of using social media in shaping the image of nurses on the Internet.

Material and methods. The study was carried out using the comparative method. The subject of the research were websites (fanpages) related to the professional environment of nurses on the social networking site Facebook.com, chosen deliberately according to the adopted criteria.

Findings. During the research, differences in the strategy of administering the analyzed websites were identified, depending mainly on the subject matter and purpose of publishing the content. The topicality, visual attractiveness and cohesion were characterized by a high level. The posts appearing on individual websites were written in the language of the recipients, with different publication frequency. The websites created a long-term group of recipients and tried to influence the image of nursing in Poland in a positive way.

Conclusions. Content published on social media can affect both the positive and negative image of the nurse in the public opinion. Among the factors that do not affect the image of nurses can be indicated, among others, offensive language of comments and displaying negative traits of nurses. Positive reception guarantees current knowledge in the field of nursing and emphasizing professional competences.

Open access
Risk Factors and Characteristics of Falls Among Hospitalized Stroke Patients

Abstract

Falls and fall-related injuries during hospitalization may cause serious problems and consequences for patients, their quality of life as well as increased healthcare expenses. The aim of the paper were to assess fall risks and identify risk factors, related to falls among stroke patients. This was a retrospective cohort study that included 217 neurological patients with acute stroke who have experienced fall during hospitalization. Morse Fall Scale was used to estimate a likelihood of falling for hospitalized patients. In total, 1.4% patients with acute stroke experienced a fall during hospitalization. According to the fall risk assessment, 77% of the patients presented a high risk for falls. Women, older respondents and those who were hospitalized for period longer than 22 days and who had higher levels of care, had higher values of Morse score. The most common risk factors for falls are: the presence of other medical diagnosis, the use of disability aids while walking, the use of intravenous therapy, disorientation in time and space, and the largest contribution to Morse score comes from using disability aids while walking and transferring patients. Greater risk of falling was observed in older neurological patients with ischemic type of stroke and weakness on the left side of the body, patients with longer hospitalization period and those with higher level of care.

Open access
SHI irradiation induced modifications of plasmonic properties of Ag-TiO2 thin film and study using FDTD simulation

Abstract

Modifications in morphological and plasmonic properties of heavily doped Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite thin films by ion irradiation have been observed. The Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite thin films were synthesized by RF co-sputtering and irradiated by 90 MeV Ni ions with different fluences. The modifications in morphological, structural and plasmonic properties of the nanocomposite thin films caused by ion irradiation were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The thickness of the film and concentration of Ag were assessed by Rutheford backscattering (RBS) as ~50 nm and 56 at.%, respectively. Interestingly, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) appeared at 566 nm in the thin film irradiated at the fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. This plasmonic behavior can be attributed to the increment in interparticle separation. Increased interparticle separation diminishes the plasmonic coupling between the nanoparticles and the LSPR appears in the visible region. The distribution of Ag nanoparticles obtained from HR-TEM images has been used to simulate absorption spectra and electric field distribution along Ag nanoparticles with the help of FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain). Further, the ion irradiation results (experimental as well simulated) were compared with the annealed nanocomposite thin film and it was found that optical properties of heavily doped metal in the metal oxide matrix can be more improved by ion irradiation in comparison with thermal annealing.

Open access
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Abdominal Fluid in Dogs with Oncological and Non-Oncological Diseases

Abstract

The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a multifunctional cytokine stimulating the growth of vascular endothelial cells, survival and proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis. It is one of the most potent stimulants of vascular permeability. VEGF is found at high levels in inflammatory and tumour-associated pleural and abdominal effusions and is involved in their occurrence. In the present study, the blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels were assayed in thirty-one client-owned dogs with neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VEGF concentration in abdominal fluid of dogs (n=6) with ascites was 190.70±34.35 pg/ml, in dogs (n=6) with peritonitis: 1449.81±365.42 pg/ml and in dogs (n=9) with tumour-associated effusion: 1993.13±202.56 pg/ml. Blood plasma VEGF of healthy dogs (control group, n=10) was 36.79±5.72 pg/ml, in dogs with ascites: 57.92±2.88 pg/ml, in dogs with peritonitis: 76.98±7.24 pg/ml and in dogs with tumour-associated effusion: 173.50±40.9 pg/ml. There were substantial differences between blood plasma and abdominal fluid VEGF levels.

Open access
Choreographies of entrepreneurship. How different formats of co-presence are combined to facilitate knowledge creation in seed accelerator programs

Abstract

This paper explores different functions of co-presence for collaborative knowledge creation in the context of seed accelerator programs. Seed accelerators offer programs of three to six months to enhance the growth of early-stage start-ups through various means of training and organizational development. In this paper, seed accelerator programs are analysed as orchestrated sequences of different types of physical co-presence. By drawing on qualitative case study data, the paper identifies eight different ways in which physical co-presence is used during seed accelerator programs. Through these eight types of co-presence, the analysis reveals that physical co-presence unfolds unique social dynamics that are utilized in a carefully designed combination of presence and absence. It is shown that physical co-presence is a means to enact relational distance and to bridge this distance for the benefit of the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, this paper adds a new perspective on how co-presence is used to facilitate the generation of value through collaborative knowledge creation.

Open access