Alina Radajewska, Józef Opara and Krzysztof Mehlich
Many studies have shown that a repeated exercises in the mirror visual feedback and motor imagery conditions may help to restore a lasted hand function in stroke patients. The evidence of effectiveness of mirror therapy is promising but the use of this method varies widely within studies. It has been postulated that there is a need to formulate basic rules of mirror therapy application with respect to different stages of stroke or severity of hand paresis. In this article the review of methodological variability of applying mirror therapy to patients after stroke has been presented. The review highlights the benefit effect of mirror therapy on motor recovery and activities of daily living after stroke.
I. Doroniewicz, M. Matyja, J. Durmała and J. Pastuszak
Background: Regular physical therapy of people with Down syndrome improves the efficiency of such treatment. However, it remains unclear whether a discontinuation of the therapy over the period of summer holiday influences the effects of the therapeutic process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of summer holiday on postural tone and quantitative parameters of body posture (angle of trunk rotation in the transverse plane and the spinal curvatures such as kyphosis or lordosis in the sagittal plane) in young people with Down syndrome.
Material/Methods: Twenty one people aged 14 to 24 years were examined, with IQ scores from 54 to 35 on the Wechsler Intelligence scale. The experimental group was young people with Down syndrome whereas the control group were people with moderate intellectual disability without additional neurological, orthopaedic and other genetic disorders. The postural tone coefficient (PTC) and values of the spinal curvature (lordosis and kyphosis) and angle of trunk rotation (ATR) were evaluated twice. The first measurement was performed after 10 months of regular neurorehabilitation according to the neurodevelopment concept while the second - after 2 months of summer holiday.
Results: During the holiday, the PTC value reduced significantly in the controls, from 0.40 to 0.37 (p=0.02), whereas in young people with Down syndrome, postural tone did not change significantly (p=0.33). In terms of the parameters of body posture, one significant change was observed in the group of patients with Down syndrome (kyphosis, p=0.00).
Conclusions: No significant correlations were found between postural tone and values of kyphosis, lordosis and angle of trunk rotation, except for the relationship between PTC and angle of trunk rotation obtained in the main thoracic measurement (Th5- Th12, p=0.03).
Jacek Małecki, Mirosław Kokosz, Edward Saulicz and Izabela Świat-Borowczyk
Background: Low back pain is a common problem in ballroom dancers. In the United States of America about 23% of all injuries in dancers is low back pain. Low back pain in dancers can be related to the extended position of the spine during dancing. The activity of the abdominal muscles, such as transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles can play significant role in the pathomechanics of the problem. These muscles are important for stability of the pelvis and the lumbar spine. The purpose of the study was to estimate the effectiveness of stability exercises of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex in reducing low back pain among ballroom dancers.
Material/Methods: 30 professional dancers (mean age of 19 years) both males and females participated in the research. Subjects were randomised into two groups. Dancers from the first group continued normal dance training with extra stability training (the experimental group). Participants from the second group continued normal dance training only, without any modifications (the control group). The pain rate was measured by the Numerical Pain Rating Scale. The stability muscles activity was estimated with the biofeedback pressure unit in supine and prone position.
Results: After 6 weeks of stability trainings in dancers from experimental group low back pain significantly decreased and the stability muscles activity improved (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Results of the study show that stability exercises can be effective in reducing low back pain in ballroom dancers. However, prolonged observations and research comparing different training regimens (e.g. general exercises or Pilates) are needed.
Jerzy Rottermund, Andrzej Knapik, Aneta Warmuz- Wancisiewicz and Mariola Saulicz
Background: Man is exposed to falls performing daily activities, their effects turn out to be more severe especially in the later decades of life. After 60 years, it appears to be a larger number of fractures resulting in the limitation of physical fitness, health complications and life threatening. Therefore, prevention efforts conducted in the form of an in-depth analysis of the falls’ causes which already happened, control of health and proper treatment, conducting systematic, interesting and varied physical activities - in conjunction with education and mental change in a determined way they can and should reduce the risk of falls of the elderly.
Gabriela Walla, Ewa Żmudzka-Wilczek, Katarzyna Mazur, Ryngier Paweł and Agnieszka Nawrat-Szołtysik
Background: The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the beneficial effects of rehabilitation on self-sufficiency and recovery to everyday activities in patients after stroke.
Material/Methods: The study group comprised 20 patients (11 women and 9 men), who were randomly allocated into two groups of 10 participants each. The first was the control group whose members underwent a 3-week rehabilitation program used in the Neurological Department of the District Hospital in Zawiercie. The study group received the same rehabilitative program but enriched with selected elements of the Bobath concept. On the first and last days of the study each of the patients was assessed with respect to self-sufficiency in performing daily activities using Functional Measure ”Repty” (FMR - simplified version of Functional Independence Measure), upper extremity proximal motor control (the Frenchay Arm Test - FAT) and lower extremity strength (the Timed Up and Go Test - TUG).
Results: The results revealed that patients with enriched rehabilitative program exhibited improvement in a greater numer of physical functions as assessed by the FMR (improvement by 26.4%) compared to the control participants (14.28%). The Frenchay Arm Test and the Timed Up and Go Test showed improvement in upper extremity control and locomotion in the study and control participants. The mean reduction in TUG time was 2.5 s and 3.4 s in the control and study participants, respectively; the results are statistically significant. A FAT task, ie., lifting a cylinder and replacing it improved by a mean of 2 and 0.5 inches; there were also gains in the performance of other tasks such as drinking water from a glass and combing hair.
Conclusions: The final results revealed an improvement of physical function in all patients. However, rehabilitation program enrichment with selected elements of the Bobath concept helped the patients achieve better functional recovery; a 3-week rehabilitation program more effectively contributed to improving self-sufficiency, locomotion and arm function.
Background: World Health Organization considers obesity as the most serious health condition in the world today. This concerns not only adults but also children and young people.
Obesity is the leading cause of increased morbidity, disabilities, mortality rates and deteriorated quality of life in society. Higher death risk due to cardiovascular diseases and certain cancerous conditions are also attributable to obesity. Some 40% adults in the world today are overweight and 13% are obese. These tendencies have also been observed in Poland. Specific components of comprehensive slimming treatments include dietary treatment, nutrition education, habits modification, increased level of physical activity, pharmacological treatment and surgical interventions. The basis in obesity treatment is to induce a negative energy balance. This status is typically achieved through dietary measures and increased energy expenditure. Helping prepare adequate individual therapeutic programs is a key to success in slimming of the obese patients. Mass reduction programs are prepared individually based on FITT formula, which takes into consideration four aspects of physical activity: frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity. The role of physiotherapists in this process is essential. Individual therapeutic programs help adjust all the aspects of training to the health status of the obese patients, with respect to coexisting diseases.
Background: Pelvic floor dysfunctions, among which urinary incontinence is the most onerous symptom, pose a serious social problem whose significance is probable to grow together with the process of an ageing society and more frequent incontinence episodes in menopausal women. The growing absence of professionally active people suffering from incontinence is prone to result both from plans to raise the retirement age and the process of an ageing society. The concept of Corefit system has been created to meet the incontinent women’s expectations. The above mentioned system is based on an individualized sensomotoric training programme as well as the re-education of incorrect motor patterns resulting in pelvic floor muscle overload. What is also essential for Corefit system effectiveness is monitoring the process of facilitation, which enables constant training plan correction.
A. Posłuszny, A. Myśliwiec, E. Saulicz, G. Mikołajowski, P. Linek, M. Saulicz and Myśliwiec Andrzej
Background: In the physiotherapeutic practice, the need for measurements of e.g. range of motion or strength of the cervical spine muscles results from a variety of degenerative processes in the area of the head, cervical spine and shoulder girdle. In Poland, we designed a measurement stand based on the equipment described in foreign literature. Validation of the measurement stand was performed in order to determine the usefulness of this stand for measurements of maximal strength and muscle torques for the isometric contraction of the cervical spine muscles.
Material/Methods: A group of 13 women was examined to validate the device. The criteria for inclusion into the study group were adult age, no back pain and head pain syndromes. Validation of the equipment consisted in the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Three measurements were performed for each movement in three planes: initial measurement (I), second measurement after 15 minutes (II) and the third measurement after a week (III). The ICC coefficient was calculated based on the methodology discussed in the study by Shrout and Fleiss (1979).
Results: The results of the measurements reached the "excellent" level of the ICC coefficient between the first and the second test. In the case of the first and the third tests, the ICC coefficient reached the "good" level for the movements in the sagittal and transverse planes and the "excellent" level for the movements in the frontal plane.
Conclusions: The measurement system used in the measurement stand designed by the authors of the present study can be successfully used for comparative studies of several groups or repeated examinations of the same study group after application of a specific therapeutic procedure.The stand cannot be used for evaluation whether the results obtained are consistent with the standards for specific populations or for comparison with the results obtained from other devices.
Andrzej Knapik, Jerzy Rottermund, Aneta Warmuz-Wancisiewicz and Jolanta Witanowska
Background: Research of health determinants confirmed its beneficial relationships with the optimum level of physical activity at any age. The problem is the physical passivity of societies. In the elderly, this problem is of particular importance, which is conditioned by both biological factors and social. This justifies the diagnosis of relationships: the barrier activity - activity - well-being.
Material/Methods: 393peoplewere tested:216women and 177men aged65 -85 years. A questionnaire with closed questions was used as a tool in the research. Physical activity was examined using selected questions of Baecke questionnaire, barriers to physical activity using a scale KCS, and self-assessment of health - by using the SF-36.
Results: Correlation analysis of age and the activity showed a low relationship for the women and no relationship for the men. There were no differences in activity due to sex, either due to the occurrence of chronic diseases. There is a weak correlation between age and kinesiophobia among women, no relationship was found in the group of men. Prevalence of chronic diseases differentiated the level of kinesiophobia only in women. Analysis of health self-assessment showed a relatively well-being in the test - the average PC and MC were above 50 points.
Conclusions: Women represent a lower level of physical activity than men, but at an older age, these differences are no longer statistically significant. However, the level of activity barriers is still higher. Aging is a process which varies greatly individually, and this applies to activity, its barriers, and self-assessment of health. Age is not a category that fully explains the complex issues depending on the variables examined.