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The Effect of the Changes in Accounting Estimates of the Discount Rate to the Costs on Account of Creating Provisions

Summary

The aim of the study is to answer the question of how a slight change in the actuarial assumptions (regarding the discount rate used) can affect the amount of the provisions, and consequently create the level of costs in the entity. In order to find the answer the financial statements of 148 stock-exchange-quoted companies from 2007 to 2014 (1184 financial statements in total) were analysed, determining whether the changes in long-term provisions for retirement benefits provisions (due to the use of a different discount) have a significant impact on the financial statements of these companies. The research involved the use of deductive-inductive research methods in the form of literature review and analysis of the content of financial statements. The obtained results indicate that the estimation of the discount rate significantly affects the levels of costs related to creating provisions, which may be an effective tool for manipulating the financial result.

Open access
Financial Globalisation and Economic Transformation in Africa: Evidence from Nigeria

Abstract

This study examines the effects of financial globalisation on the Nigerian economy using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin and the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics reports from 1992 to 2017. Using both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses, the study reveals that financial globalisation has helped to mobilise foreign direct investment into the economy and the significant positive effect of personal remittances on per capita income of Nigerians. Therefore it recommends that favourable policies to attract and retain FDI and personal remittances from developed nations should be encouraged and African governments and economic actors should consider all stakeholders’ interests, and ensure that an international financial and trade system is “fair and reciprocal” to eliminate the persisting trends in abject poverty, predatory trade policies and the escalation of economic inequalities in Africa.

Open access
How to Measure the Economic Integrity of Ibor Panels? A Behavioural Approach

Summary

IBOR manipulation imposed new benchmark regulations that forced the market to enter a path of the reform of the existing financial indices and the creation of new ones. The paper describes the evolution of two IBOR panels: one representing a global financial benchmark LIBOR, and the other representing a local PLN benchmark, WIBOR. The paper provides a quantitative analysis of partial quotes of IBOR panellists and suggests that economic integrity measures should be introduced for IBOR panels. The aim of the research is to define a set of tools that provide information regarding the efficiency of the process of the production of the interest rate benchmark. The research is supplemented with a behavioural analysis of the banks’ decision-making process that interferes the contribution of IBOR data. The integrity measures can help market users and financial authorities in evaluating the quality of current and past panels and identifying behavioural factors impacting on partial quotes of the contributing banks.

Open access
An Evaluation of the Discriminatory Power of Selected Polish Bankruptcy Prediction Models As Part of the Validation Process

Abstract

The purposes of this article are to present validation techniques according to their discriminatory power, while indicating the reservations about such techniques, and to check the adjustment of the existing Polish bankruptcy prediction models in the context of their discriminatory power. This is the first study that performs a validation of such models. Based on the analysis, it was found that the fifth model developed by Hadasik was characterised by avery high discriminatory power. The decision was made to base the evaluation of the discriminatory power of the modules on the Gini index, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, the H measure, the information value (IV), and the precision of the estimates of bankruptcy.

Open access
The Evolution of the Importance of the True and Fair View (TFV) Principle. The Case of Poland

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse matters of truth, which is inherent issue of accounting (and therefore in reporting, as its part), which is reflected in the true and fair principle (TFV). The paper demonstrates the essence of the TFV principle and the evolution of its role and place among the set of qualitative characteristics of financial statements. After examining the changes in the development of the perception of TFV the paper makes an appraisal, gives the author’s comments and contribution by providing direct implications for regulators and the setters of standards. With respect to typical limitations regarding behavioural studies, the paper provides practical as well as social implications about understanding of the TFV concept and its effect on both the preparers and users of financial statement.

Open access
Expensive and Cheap Funds – Polish Stock Mutual Fund Fees in 2017

Abstract

Mutual fund fees are extraordinarily high in Poland – almost three times higher than in Western Europe and almost five times higher than in the United States. In fact is that from among 183 Polish open-ended stock mutual funds as many as 81 impose a management fee of 4%, which is the highest value in the sample. The question arises whether it is really worth to invest in funds from the more expensive group. Comparing funds charging the highest fees (4%) with the cheaper ones it seems that there is no statistically significant difference between rate of return, risk and efficiency. However, more expensive funds have on average higher costs, are three years older and have almost 70% bigger assets. This may suggest that a well-established market position – not performance – is the trigger for raising their fees. Interestingly, funds with a relatively high minimal initial contribution level (5,000 PLN) have significantly lower management fees with similar costs, total assets value and performance results. Further analysis has also indicated that the costs level (Total Expense Ratio) is higher for older funds, while it is not related to funds’ size.

Open access
Forecasting Currency Risk in an Enterprise Using the Monte Carlo Simulation

Abstract

A non-financial enterprise with receivables or liabilities denominated in a foreign currency is exposed to currency risk. Wanting to calculate a financial reserve in order to secure its receivables or liabilities, an enterprise can introduce the concept of the value at risk. To determine value at risk, an enterprise has to know the probability distribution of the future value of the receivable or the liability for a specific moment in future. Using a geometric Brownian motion to reflect exchange rate changes is among the possible solutions. The aim of the paper is to indicate that using the Monte Carlo simulation for forecasting the currency risk of an enterprise is a clear, easy-to-implement and flexible in terms of the assumptions approach. The flexibility of the Monte Carlo approach relies on the possibility to take up the assumption that the currency position changes caused by currency fluctuations have an other than normal probability distribution.

Open access
Regulations of the Financial Market in Poland. Equilibrium Vs. Inversion

Abstract

The subject of this study is the legal regulations concerning the banking and stock market sector. The research objective is to identify the issue of the adequacy of legal regulations on the modern financial market. The object of the research is the banking institutions and companies listed on the stock exchange. The following research methods were used, i.e. the analysis of the literature, analysis of legal acts, observations, descriptive, comparative and case study analysis. It was found that there has been an increase in the level of detail and restrictiveness of legal regulations in recent years, both in relation to the banking sector and to the stock market. In addition, the legislative revolution not only continues, but is also gaining momentum. Thus we could formulate a conclusion about the inversion of the modern financial market. The financial market was to facilitate business operations through access to capital. Currently, excessive regulations indicate the growing legal barriers to entering the financial market and conducting business activity in it.

Open access
Risks in the Investment Activity of Polish Regions

Abstract

Investment activities executed by regional authorities are exposed to high risk. The risk results from the very essence of investment projects implemented by regions in Poland and can be associated with the failure to meet the regional budget. The purpose of this study is to assess the size of the existing discrepancies between the planned and actually incurred investment expenditure and to find out if there are systematic changes in the level of these discrepancies i subsequent years. This goal was achieved through the presentation of the specific approach to risk measurement in the investment activities of local government units. The research was undertaken by regional self-government units. Empirical research has allowed us to answer three research questions: how great were the disparities between the planned and the actually incurred investment costs in the Polish regions in 2011-2015? Did systematic changes in the level of inconsistency between the planned and the actually incurred costs take place in the observed period? Was the rate of failure to meet investment plans correlated with the rate of failure to meet operational financial plans?

Open access
The Social Impact Bond as a Financial Instrument

Abstract

Social impact bonds are an innovative mechanism for financing social tasks with the financial resources of private investors. The repayment of the capital invested and capital gains depends on obtaining apredetermined social aim that is paid for by the public side under the “payment for results” formula. The previous work on this mechanism focused mainly on its task and organizational dimension. In this paper, the author attempts to define the social impact bond as afinancial instrument. In particular, the financial side of the mechanism is considered. First, an attempt is made to determine the place of the social impact bond in the theoretical classifications of financial instruments. Second, the place of the instrument is indicated in the system of financial law. Finally, some remarks are made on the need to have the new instrument regulated in Polish legislation.

Open access