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Refeeding syndrome relevance for critically ill patients

Abstract

Refeeding Syndrome (RFS) is a potential life-threatening complication of the nutritional therapy in the replenishment phase after period of starvation. This not very known syndrome may be a life-threatening metabolic condition due to rapid, inadequate nutritional support in malnourished catabolic patients. The intake of food and therefore the switch from a catabolic to an anabolic metabolism is most considered etiological mechanism. The main biochemical feature of RFS is hypophosphatemia and low levels of potassium and magnesium. Lack of vitamins, especially vitamin B1 or thiamine is often present and involves severe clinical complications.

Open access
New Drug Delivery Systems Concept in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care—Controlled Release of Active Compounds

Abstract

With time, medical and pharmaceutical research has advanced significantly. However, one of the major issues is how to administer the active substance. Among these, it counts over- or under-dosage of the active substance, low re­sponse to treatment, or increased clinical risk of the patient. An innovative method able to avoid these obstacles is represented by controlled release systems for active substances. The interest for these systems came with allowing encapsulation in the antibiotic release matrices, local anesthetics, protein or other substances. Moreover, a number of such vehicles are now available to release controlled substances used predominantly in the anesthesia and intensive care unit.

Open access
Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in Adults - new trends in patients safety

Abstract

Sedation and analgesia may be need­ed for many interventional or diagnostic proce­dures, whose number has grown exponentially lately. The American Society of Anesthesiolo­gists introduced the term “procedural sedation and analgesia” (PSA) and clarified the termi­nology, moderate sedation and Monitored An­esthesia Care. This review tries to present a nondissociative sedation classification, follow­ing ASA guidelines as well as pre-procedural assessment and preparation, in order to choose the appropriate type and level of sedation, pa­tient monitoring and agents, which are most commonly used for sedation and/or analgesia, along with their possible side effects. The paper also lists the possible complications associated with PSA and a few specific particularities of procedural sedation.

Open access
Association of Coronary Wall Shear Stress With Atheromatous Plaque Vulnerability: A Systematic Review

Abstract

Acute coronary syndromes are usually triggered by the erosion or rupture of a vulnerable coronary plaque. A vulnerable plaque (VP) is an atheromatous plaque which, after suffering different transformations, is prone to rupture causing an acute coronary event. Such a VP carries inside several biomarkers considered as “signatures of vulnerability”, which, if identified, can prompt timely initiation of therapeutic measures in order to prevent the development of an acute myocardial infarction. The most freqeuntly used techniques for identification of vulnerability markers are computed tomographic angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. Endothelial shear stress (ESS) represents a new promising biomarker associated with plaque vulnerability. Determination of ESS is nowadays possible using noninvasive imaging techniques, based on complex computational post-processing of multiple datasets extracted from CTA images and advanced computational fluid dynamics technologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the role of the coronary ESS, determined using advanced computational techniques for image post-processing, as a feature associated with CTA-derived biomarkers of atheromatous plaque vulnerability, underlining the conceptual differences between high ESS and low ESS as promotors of vulnerability.

Open access
Atrial Fibrillation a Benign Condition? Quality of Life Approach

Abstract

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent cardiac rhythm disorder, considered until recently benign. Due to its major complications (cardio-embolic episodes) patients need to be anticoagulated. Aim: To assess the quality of life (QOL) in patients with new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) versus those using classical anticoagulants (VKA). Methods: A total of 483 patients admitted consecutively in our clinic were evaluated during hospitalization and after discharge. Follow-up visits were conducted: at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months; the quality of life (QoL) was measured by a specific questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), and the results were assessed. Patients were divided in two groups considering their anticoagulant use: NOAC or VKA. Baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes as well as QoL indices were compared between the two groups The current research has been conducted in accordance with the ethical prin ciples set out in the Helsinki Declaration and Good Clinical Practice Recommendations and was approved by our hospital Ethics Committee. Results: The mean age of our studied group (374 eligible patients) was 64.7 ± 8.2 years (p=0.220); 116 patients (31.01%) used NOAC. Patients with NOAC obtained better results in all domains: physical (57.0±8.9 vs. 51.1±12.5 vs. 42.0±6.2; p<0.001), social (62.6±19.8 vs. 52.5±20.0 vs. 45.7±16.0; p=0.019) and environmental (62.9±12.7 vs. 52.7±7.6 vs. 60.7±3.6; p =0.018). Compared to VKAs, NOACs were more commonly prescribed in patients with a history of stroke or with a higher thromboembolic risk (p<0.001). EQ-5D-3L total score: 75.6 ± 20.9; visual analogue scale: 63.1 ± 20.6. Conclusion(s): Satisfaction and QoL with oral anticoagulants were high, although they were both better with NOACs. A worse QoL was associated with comorbidities, polypragmasy, and previous treatment with VKA. Patients strongly expressed their desire to improve their QoL.

Open access
Erector Spinae Block. A Narrative Review

Abstract

The erector spinae plane block is a novel ultrasound-guided technique that has recently been described for the management of acute and chronic thoracic pain. Currently an increasingly number of indications for the ESP block have been published. Nevertheless, the anatomy, mechanism of action, doses and volume of local anesthetic needed are still unclear. The aim of this narrative review is study this new block with base on the updated medical literature.

Open access
Microbiology Characteristics Among Cystic Fibrosis Patients in Western Romania

Abstract

Background: Pulmonary infectious inflammation is a major cause of decline in lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) marked by exacerbations, consequently, slowing evolution of lung disease is a primary aim in CF management. The objective of the study was to analyze the microbiological spectrum from epidemiological point of view in our patients. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional transversal study including fifty-seven patients evaluated the prevalence of CF-related microbes in the study group and their pulmonary status. Results: The most frequent microorganism found in our group, regardless age, was Staphyloccocus aureus, closely followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacillus tuberculosis was a rare germ, despite the important frequency in our country. The microbes frequency was different with age groups, thus 3.5% of 1-3 years old children had the methicillin sen sitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strain, while for the 6-12 years group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in an equal percentage of 14% with MSSA. Pseudomonas prevalence was found in 14.0% of adults and the combined infections were diagnosed in about a fifth of our patients. Conclusions: We concluded that the percentage of respiratory infections with redoubtable microbes is relatively moderate. The presence of underweight among CF patients with severe mutations are risk factor for a worse outcome and measures should be instituted.

Open access