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In vitro Callus induction of aromatic rice depends on the concentration of 2, 4-D

Abstract

Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.

Open access
Natural product like “shikonin” might be a hope for Breast cancer cure

Abstract

Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.

Open access
Optimization of fermentation condition for cellulase enzyme production from Bacillus sp.

Abstract

Cellulase is an important enzyme in present-day of industrial biotechnology. The current study is concerned with the production and partial characterization of cellulase enzyme from Bacillus sp. The effect of various fermentation conditions for cellulase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Maximum enzyme production was obtained after 24 hours of incubation in fermentation medium with pH 3.5 at 35°C under having agitation at 150 rpm while inoculums volume 1% was applied. Enzyme production was 1.91 times higher after optimizing the production condition as compared to the basal media. Cellulase characterization revealed that optimum activity was at pH 5.5 and 50°C for 50 minutes. About 68% of the activity retained after heating the crude enzyme solution at 50°C for 30 minutes. This nature makes cellulase a suitable candidate for current mainstream biomass conversions for sustainable agriculture and industrial processes.

Open access
The bone hormones and their potential effects on glucose and energy metabolism

Abstract

The bones form the framework of our body. We know that bones protect our vital organs, regulate calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, and function as a site of erythropoiesis. More recently, however, the identification of bone hormones has allowed us to envision bones as endocrine organs too. Within the last few years, the bone hormones osteocalcin and lipocalin 2 have been implicated with glucose and energy metabolism. We systematically reviewed articles surrounding this subject and found a clear relationship between the osteocalcin levels and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We also found that many journals have shown the detrimental effects of an absences of lipocalin 2 from adipocytes. As osteocalcin administration to mice showed decreased blood glucose levels and promoted glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Future studies could perhaps explore the use of osteocalcin as a supplement for type 2 diabetes.

Open access
Characterization of a Novel Avian Avulavirus 1 of Class I isolated from a Mute Swan (Cygnus Olor) in Macedonia in 2012

Abstract

Avian avulavirus type 1 (AAvV-1) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Even though belonging to a single serotype, there is great genetic variability between these viruses. On the basis of the available complete fusion (F) gene and whole genome sequences and using the genotype classification system, AAvV-1 viruses are divided in two major groups: class I and class II. Class I viruses are predominantly avirulent viruses and majority of the isolations come from waterfowl and domestic poultry from live bird markets in USA and China although isolations from wild birds are reported globally. In our study we used classical, molecular and phylogenetic tools to characterize an AAvV-1 isolated from a mute swan in Macedonia. Based on the complete F gene sequence, we have concluded that the virus designated as AAvV-1/mute swan/Macedonia/546/2012 (KP123431) belongs to the class I of AAvV-1 with an avirulent cleavage site motif 112ERQER*L117. The virus could not be assigned to any of the four currently existing subgenotypes (1a, 1b, 1c or 1d) of the single genotype 1 of class I viruses. Two distant viruses, isolated from goose in Alaska in 1991 and from goose in Ohio in 1987, shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity of the complete F gene with the isolate in our study: 92.7% and 92.8%, respectively. This is the first report of isolation of class I AAvV-1 in Southeastern Europe. The asymptomatic nature and the underreporting of sequences from the class I viruses impede the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of this group of viruses.

Open access
The coexistence of infundibular pituicytoma and Cushing’s disease due to pituitary adenoma: A case report

Abstract

Objectives. Pituicytomas are rare, solid, well-circumscribed, low grade (grade I), non-neuroendocrine, and noninfiltrative tumors of the neurohypophysis or infundibulum, which appear in the sellar/suprasellar regions. Herein, we present a case with Cushing’s disease (CD) caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma in association with an infundibular pituicytoma.

Subject and Results. A 37-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with a six-month history of blurry vision. Physical examination demonstrated plethora, excessive sweating, weight gain, moon facies, and acne. Basal serum cortisol and ACTH levels were 16 µg/dl and 32 pg/ml, respectively. The results of screening tests were suggestive of Cushing syndrome. It was also 1.97 µg/dl following 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test which was consistent with CD. Pituitary MR imaging revealed a single lesion measuring 6x6.5 mm on the pituitary stalk. Infundibular mass excision and pituitary exploration by extended endoscopic endonasal approach were applied. On immunohistochemistry, strong diffuse immunolabeling for both S100 and TTF-1 was noted for the cells of infundibular mass, diagnosed as pituicytoma. Because the developed panhypopituitarism postoperatively, patient was discharged with daily desmopressin, levothyroxine, hydrocortisone, and intramuscular testosterone, once a month.

Conclusions. Pituicytoma is an uncommon noninvasive tumor of the sellar and suprasellar regions. In this case report, we described a patient with Cushing’s disease to whom MRI displayed only an infundibular well-circumscribed lesion, but not any pituitary adenoma. Despite the absence of any sellar lesion, awareness of other undetected possible lesion and exploring hypophysis during the transsphenoidal surgery is mandatory for the correct diagnosis.

Open access
Comparing the preventive effect of sodium hydrosulfide, leptin, and curcumin against L-arginine induced acute pancreatitis in rats: role of corticosterone and inducible nitric oxide synthase

Abstract

Objectives. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a life-threatening condition. Using antioxidants in AP is insufficient and conflicting. Therefore, this study compared the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), leptin or curcumin pretreatment on AP induced by L-arginine.

Methods. Forty adult male rats were used and classified into: 1) control; 2) AP group [each rat was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 2 doses of L-arginine of 250 mg/100 g body weight (b.w.) with an interval of 1 h]; 3) NaHS+AP group (each rat was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg b.w. of NaHS 1 h before induction of AP); 4) leptin+AP group (each rat was pretreated with 10 μg/kg b.w. of leptin 30 min before induction of AP; and 5) curcumin+AP group (in which rats were i.p. injected with 150 mg/kg b.w. of curcumin 30 min before induction of AP). Serum amylase, lipase, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and corticosterone (CORT) levels were assayed. In addition, pancreatic tissues were obtained for histopathological examination and malondialde-hyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were measured.

Results. All AP treated groups showed significant decrease in serum levels of pancreatic enzymes, NO, and TNF-α, and pancreatic MDA and iNOS levels, while TAC levels were significantly increased. NaHS caused more limitation of inflammation than leptin and curcumin by affecting iNOS. Leptin was more potent than curcumin due to the stimulatory effect of leptin on glucocorticoid release to counteract inflammation.

Conclusions. NaHS was more effective in AP amelioration than the leptin and curcumin.

Open access
Comparison of the Chemical Composition of Whey Cheeses: Urda And Ricotta

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two types of cheese prepared from bovine whey: Urda and Ricotta. Cheeses were examined for chemical parameters and their amino acids profile was determined. The results revealed that the chemical composition of the observed whey cheeses was highly significantly different (p<0.01) from each other. The amounts of dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, ash and salt were higher in Ricotta compared with Urda cheese samples. On the other hand, Urda contained more moisture, fat on a dry matter basis and moisture on a fat-free basis (79.59%, 27.50%, 84.27% versus 69.82%, 21.02%, 74.56%, respectively). Especially higher yield, salt in moisture content and energy values were observed in Ricotta cheese (5.93%, 3.12%, 145.99Kcal/100g versus 4.39%, 2.40%, 108.97Kcal/100g; Ricotta and Urda, respectively). Whey cheeses are a particularly good source of amino acids containing approximately - Ricotta: leucine (1.60g/100g), lysine (1.17g/100g), phenylalanine (0.78g/100g) and followed by threonine (0.77g/100g), while Urda contained leucine (0.80g/100g), lysine (0.45g/100g), threonine (0.68g/100g) and phenylalanine (0.31g/100g). Both cheese varieties contained glutamic and aspartic acid as the predominant non-essential amino acids (Ricotta: 3.91g/100g and 1.68g/100g versus Urda: 1.65g/100g and 0.80g/100g, respectively). Generally, from a nutritional point of view, the investigated whey cheeses could be considered as cheeses with low salt and fat content, as well as cheeses particularly abundant in branched chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). These results also emphasize their advantages as products that present a cost-effective way of dealing with whey as waste material.

Open access
Determination of Free Doxycycline Concentrations in the Plasma and Milk of Sheep and in the Plasma of Rabbits by using the HPLC Method

Abstract

A fast and sensitive HPLC method was validated in order to analyze doxycycline in plasma and milk of sheep and in plasma of rabbits. The samples were processed with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). After the centrifugation step, a supernatant containing extracted doxycycline and internal standard oxytetracycline was injected into the HPLC system with PDA detection. The method showed linearity in the range of 0.125 - 2.5 µg/mL for ovine plasma, 0.125 – 5.0 µg/mL for ovine milk, and 0.125 – 1 µg/mL for rabbit plasma. The inter-assay precision varied between 5.69 – 13.55 %. Values for intra-assay precision were between 0.62 – 8.67 %. Accuracy was higher than 90% in all of the tested concentrations in the three types of biological matrices. The mean extraction recovery was higher than 90 % for all matrices. In order to handle only with free drug concentrations, microfiltration of standard solutions with low (0.25mg/mL), medium (0.5mg/mL) and high (1.0mg/mL) concentration was performed. A percentage for correction of the quantified doxycycline was calculated. The most significant adjustments should be made at the low concentrations. The correction for rabbit plasma is 24.63±5.03%, for ovine plasma is 20.10±8.01% and for milk–16.68±0.04 %. This method can be used for routine determination of doxycycline concentrations for pharmacokinetic studies and further dosage adjustment.

Open access
Development of a point-of-care test to detect hepatitis B virus DNA threshold relevant for treatment indication

Abstract

Background

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been the most prevalent blood-borne pathogen wherein utero transmission has still not been properly managed. Recent practice guidelines suggested that an antiviral drug should be administered to third-trimester pregnancies with significant viremia (>2 × 105 IU/mL).

Objectives

To develop a novel turbidity-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled with heat treatment DNA extraction method that is a rapid, cost-effective, and feasible viral load assessment and could be applied to antenatal screening.

Methods

Primers and reagents were designed, turbidity-based platform and heat treatment method were added, and evaluated for optimal efficiency. Assay sensitivity was tested from serially diluted standard HBV DNA. Assay specificity was tested with six standard viral DNAs. Clinical samples were analyzed and the results were compared with those of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) diagnostic records.

Results

The optimized condition was 60°C with no betaine, 1.4 mM deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) and 6 mM of MgSO4 for 60 min. The assay accurately detected samples with standard HBV DNA at >2 × 105 IU/mL in both distilled water and spiked serum. Results can be interpreted within 31.48 ± 1.41 min in real-time turbidimeter. The amplification is exclusively specific to HBV, but not with the other six human-specific viruses. Moreover, the assay showed comparable performance within 95% confidence interval to the previously developed HBV LAMP toward clinical specimens.

Conclusions

This newly developed method was accurate, affordable, and flexible to further implementation to large-scale third-trimester pregnancy screening.

Open access