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Andrzej Kątny

Abstract

The article presents an outline of issue of translator’s ‘false friends’ and internationalisms from linguistic point of view. This discourse has been supported by chosen examples of words from a few languages. The second part of the article has been focused on didactic issues; the author suggests that a positive transfer in teaching of vocabulary should be used, especially in the context of the called for multilingualism.

Open access

Józef Jarosz

Abstract

The contemporary teaching of foreign languages assumes the development of the ability to use a foreign language in different communication situations. Apart from language competence, also the cultural competence is developed as it is a necessary component of communication. A successful transfer of knowledge and language skills in the process of foreign language learning is determined by a textbook (in addition to other factors). The goal of this article is to analyze the content and assess three Danish textbooks, which were published in Germany in the years 2008-2010. The textbooks are examined in terms of knowledge about Danish life and institutions, the transfer of intercultural competence and the presence of stereotypes. The textbooks were studied based on the list of criteria and it resulted in stating that the textbooks fulfill the objective of providing the knowledge about the country to a great degree. The intercultural component and the issue of stereotypes are dealt with in a different manner.

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Pia Jarvad

Abstract

In this article I give semantic and historical explanations of some selected lexical areas that may cause problems for non-native speakers of Danish. I describe some important developments in a historical perspective, showing how new words shift the semantics of old words.

I also deal with how many new words are continuously recorded and the vast majority of new words are occasional formations. They show the creativity in Danish language. I have selected two new words from each year since 1946 to honor the 70-year-old professor in Danish.

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Paulina Horbowicz

Abstract

The paper deals with the phenomenon of nomina attrubutiva, i.e. nouns denoting a bearer of a quality, in modern Norwegian. It is a corpus study of 55 compound nouns with verbal, nominal and adjectival stems. The goal of the study is to determine which nomina attributiva are the most frequent in written and spoken language and to analyze their usage patterns with regards to their reference and the types of syntactic structures they are parts of. The results show that the analyzed compounds are far from being a homogenous group and that they differ particularly in respect to reference.

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Henrik Jørgensen

Abstract

This article discusses compounds in a corpus collected among native and multilingual children in schools in Aarhus, Denmark. The corpus consists of interviews with individual children and recordings of groups of children playing; the compounds were collected from the interviews only. Focus is on different semantic types of compounds.

A large body of the corpus consists of simple lexicalized compounds where the compound is the only relevant alternative if you want to express yourself idiomatically. Occasionally we found interesting unconventional compounding used to replace lexical gaps with the children, among the native speakers as well as among the multilingual children. In some cases, very special types of compounds came up, especially in the attempts of the children to cope with specific challenges in some of the tasks in the interviews.

Open access

Jerzy Kaliszan

Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of Russian grammatical homography (i.e. the relationship between paradigmatic forms with the same spelling but different pronunciation caused by different word stress) among nouns, adjectives and verbs. This type of homography may be illustrated by such pairs of inflectional forms of the same lexeme as руки - руки, большую - большую, смотрите - смотрите etc. The author’s aim is an attempt to describe all kinds of grammatical homographs existing in contemporary Russian.

Open access

Maria Krysztofiak

Abstract

The paper describes the process of a literary work’s perception from the perspective of transformations made in Polish translations of H.C. Andersens’s work. The author presents the historical perspective of translating Andersen into Polish in the 19th and 20th century and, based on selected examples, analyzes such essential issues within the realm of artistic translation as translation policy/publishing policy as well as the translator’s culture-formative role and tasks. The analyzed issues also include recent and older translations, the culture of translation and, last but not least, the role of translational and literary criticism in the reception process.

Open access

Krzysztof Janikowski

Abstract

The paper attempts to present an account of the interrelations between aspect and tense in Polish and Danish sentences expressing past time meaning. The starting-point of the comparative analysis is the view that different languages do not use the same morphosyntactic means for representing a category. A grammatical category is always a mapping between particular formal means and particular meanings (or functions). With reference to Czarnecki (1998) the author distinguishes between the functional-semantic category aspectuality and the formal category aspect. According to this view there are different formal means of expressing the aspectuality: morphological, syntactic and lexical. The Polish aspect is to be defined in grammatical terms, whereas its Danish counterpart rather in lexical-semantic ones. Correspondingly, tense and aspect are very closely connected with each other in Polish.