The valuation of non–marketed goods and services of beaches in developing nations is rarely conducted; thus, lax management efforts at these resource–rich places often lead to degradation. In an attempt to resolve this issue the research used the travel cost valuation method and incorporated the use of geographic information system to estimate a never-before-done non-market valuation of the area visited by respondents at the beach of Patenga of Chittagong, Bangladesh. The uniqueness of the research stems from defining the area enjoyed by the survey respondents, via mapping, which helped assign the value generated to that particular part of Patenga and not the rest; this significantly decreased the underestimation problem of the travel cost methodology. The research used secondary sources and collected responses and geographical data from surveys conducted over a seven day period in March of 2018, from 277 respondents. A value of at least 14,331,044BDT/USD1.71million was estimated for 2018 for only 9% of Patenga. Furthermore, the Willingness to Pay approach was used to propose an entry fee of 15BDT/USD0.18 which would yield a revenue of more than 6,750,000BDT/USD79,882 around the year. The authors believe, these results will push the policy-makers and encourage stakeholder participation to better implement and monitor environmental management measures at Patenga.
The article presents an attempt to analyse population changes and to measure the strength of the impact of factors causing these changes in former voivodeship (province) cities in Poland. In view of the ongoing processes of suburbanisation, the discussion also concerns the areas surrounding the city, i.e. those creating urban systems together with the city. These zones were delineated, calling them demographic influence zones, because only demographic factors were involved in defining them. The research was conducted in the period between1999–2015, and took into account the administrative reform of the country that degraded 31 cities from voivodeship (NUTS-2) capitals to poviat (LAU-1) cities. The main aim of the study was to find an answer to the question: do the directions and the strength of population changes confirm a hypothesis of the destructive impact of the loss of administrative function on settlement units. The results of the study only partially confirmed this hypothesis. Although a decrease in the population is overwhelmingly predominant in the city core, in the case of the demographic influence zone, it has already increased. Counting both parts together, it was found that in half of the cases there was a decline and in the other half a growth of the population.
Ales Rudl, Ivo Machar, Lubos Uradnicek, Ludek Praus and Vilem Pechanec
Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, and these are often closely associated with the species, age and size of trees as well as with their vitality. Generally, the focus of urban and regional planning is aimed at very large trees, because very large trees are considered to be key green structures in an urban green infrastructure. However, there is a significant knowledge gap related to the importance of young trees in cities, despite their value in urban green spaces, greenways, parks, gardens, urban forests, and as components of green roofs and green walls. This study is the result of field mapping young trees in the urban area of the famous European historical city of Prague. Field mapping revealed a total of 40 individual young trees, or young tree groups, with cultural value in the study area of Prague. The results of this empirical study indicate that young trees (not just very large and old trees) can be very important structures for the provision of cultural ecosystem services in cities, and that they can be viewed as living cultural symbols. This is a new aspect in the awareness of the environmental and social roles of urban trees. This case study from Prague suggests that (i) young trees in urban areas need more attention from researchers and (ii) should be incorporated into urban planning as an important component of urban green infrastructure.
This study examined the perceptions of able-bodied beggars to factors responsible for their prevalence and the land uses they occupied for their activities in Ibadan metropolis. Nigeria. Data were obtained from 117 (18, 12, 46, 13 and 28 in the areas of Sango, Iwo Road, Sabo, Challenge and Oja Oba, respectively) randomly selected able-bodied beggars using a structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentages, mean index, standard deviation, chi-square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The study showed that 51.3% of the beggars were males; the youngest was 19 years old, while the oldest was 59 years. The average age of the beggars was 33 years. Further findings revealed that the average household size for the study area was 5, while the standard deviation was 2.6. The important perceived factors responsible for the prevalence of begging among the able-bodied beggars, measured on a 5-point Likert Scale, were homelessness (4.29), lack of skills for gainful employment (3.77), debt (3.64), meeting cost of education/children’s education (3.64), inability to secure a job (3.52) and lack of food (2.97). The study further revealed that the prevalence of begging among able-bodied beggars varied with land uses. Against this background, it was concluded that the information obtained on the socio-economic attributes of able-bodied beggars, perceived determinants of their prevalence and their targeted land uses could be utilized by policy-makers and urban planners to proffer lasting solutions to the menace of begging.
Ágnes Keresztesi, Réka Boga, Zsolt Bodor, Katalin Bodor, Szende Tonk, György Deák and Ion-Andrei Nita
In order to investigate the precipitation chemistry, studies were carried out from January 2013 to December 2013 in Odorheiu Secuiesc and Miercurea Ciuc, Eastern Carpathians, Romania. During a period of eleven years (2006 – 2016), 2013 was the driest year. The rainwater samples were analyzed for pH, major anions and cations. HCO3− concentrations were calculated based on the empirical relationship between pH and HCO3−. NH4+, Ca2+, SO42− were the dominant ions in precipitation at both sites. The pH values varied from 6.75 to 7.46 Miercurea Ciuc, and from 6.69 to 7.67 in Odorheiu Secuiesc. The neutralization was mainly brought by Ca2+ and NH4+. Estimated ratios of sea-salt fraction (SSF), non-sea-salt fraction (NSSF), and results from Spearman’s rank correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed that the acidic ions (SO42−, NO3−) were derived from anthropogenic activities, NH4+ from soil fertilization, while Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ originated from terrestrial source. These influence the precipitations ionic content, especially during droughts. Spatial variations and the rim effect of the Eastern Carpathians on precipitation chemistry is also shown.
The main objective of the study was to identify high flood risk zones in AMA. The study also used questionnaires to assess local knowledge on what accounts for the high flood risk in their community. Spatial analysis techniques were used to model flood risk based on the following contributory factors; land cover, soil, drainage density, topography and proximity to rivers. The results show that high flood risk areas covered 46.3km2(20%), moderate risk area, 72.9km2(31.6%), low risk area 41.5km2(18%) and very low risk areas, about 6.7km2(2.9%). The high flood risk zones were low-lying areas below 50 meters above sea level and closely associated with poor drainage systems. People perceived not just low-lying areas as a paramount reason accounting for flooding but also very bad waste disposal habit of the public. These offsets the efforts of waste management companies to keep drains free of refuse.
Chiurciu Irina-Adriana, Constantin Oprea Dana Maria, Grigore Elena, Bogan Elena and Tatu Florina
Nowadays, at global level, the linseed oil culture is more important economically than the linseed cultures for fiber. The world's largest linseed production is the linseed oil, followed by the culture for the consumption of seeds and for fibers. In this context, this study presents the evolution and the main trends in the production of the linseed oil for Romania in the period 2008-2017, the analysis being based on the values of specific indicators, namely the areas cultivated with linseeds and the production of the linseed oil achieved at the national level, macro-regions and development regions, both as a total and in the private sector as well. This analysis will be done in the context of the ongoing climate change also affecting Romania's territory. Analysing the results, one can notice that, although after 1990 the cultivated areas have decreased dramatically, since the integration of Romania into the EU, the linseed oil cultivated areas have started to grow. Thus, in 2017, Romania was the sixth EU linseed oil producer in the EU, with the South-East region holding a significant share of the cultivated areas.
Kamila Svobodova, Luis Monteiro, Jiri Vojar and Katerina Gdulova
Planning for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of multiple and complex factors. Trails constitute the main recreation facility in protected areas. They are an important and common infrastructure that concentrates visitor movement. Their sustainable planning and management requires an understanding of how the visitors made their selection. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of trail attributes on visitor numbers in the Krkonoše Mountains National Park in the Czech Republic. The methods used in this study present an analytical approach involving geographic information system analysis, field monitoring and data analyses using generalised linear models. The results showed the preferential tendencies among visitors to certain trail attributes. Marginal significance and a rather strong variability in preferences (over 10%) were identified for five trail characteristics: the amount of local attractions; diversity of land cover types; dominant land cover along a trail; soil erosion; and the type of trail surface. In our study, we illustrate an analytical framework for the assessment of trail characteristics that can help guide trail analyses and management efforts. On the other hand, our findings raise new research questions and point to the requirements for further research in order to better understand how environmental attributes influence visitor choice and to use this knowledge for trail planning and management.
Air quality is an issue of general, global interest, which requires the implementation of appropriate environmental policies, taking into account the essential connection between the world economy and the environment. Air is an important natural element of the environment, vital for human life and health, as well as for fauna and flora, and it needs to be protected by all means, including legal methods.
Lately, scientific studies and researches have shown that the chemical structure of the atmosphere is changing for natural or anthropogenic causes, which requires more effective monitoring of the impact of human activity on the atmosphere, doubled by the implementation of radical measures, including legal ones, meant to insure the protection of this environmental element.
The increase in the quantity of polluting gases eliminated into the atmosphere causes global warming, destroying the ozone layer and generating other imbalances in the natural environment.
In these conditions, and since pollution knows no political-administrative borders, being a global phenomenon, there is an absolute need for international cooperation based on conventions and treatises on this topic, or directives from international bodies and organisations, and at a national level, the environmental legislation must aim to protect the air in the troposphere as well as the other elements outside the troposphere, such as the ozone layer, which is part of the stratosphere.
Hasan Yılmaz, Ludwig Lauwers, Jeroen Buysse and Guido Van Huylenbroeck
Turkish livestock sector plays very important role in the Turkish GDP and the use of manure affects the environment but the farming sector want the farmers to employ the use of more integrated manure practice. The study assessed the economic impacts of integrated manure and chemical fertilizer used and the manure management practices sustainable for Turkish agriculture. Turkey is dependent on foreign countries not only for energy but for chemical fertilizers raw materials. High price of chemical fertilizers is one of the negative impact, manure substitution will lead to stable macro-economy, and environmental friendly economy and agricultural productivity will also impacts. To achieve these impacts, some manure practices suitable for sustainable rural development in Turkey was assessed.