The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in biomechanical characteristics between one- and two-legged running vertical jumps (1-LRVJ and 2-LRVJ). Ten male college volleyball players voluntarily participated in this study. Two running vertical jumps used in volleyball were randomly performed. Three trials for each type of the running vertical jump were recorded for each participant. Data were collected using six infra-red Qualisys motion-capture cameras at a 180-Hz sampling rate and two AMTI force platforms at an 1800-Hz sampling rate. Jump height in the 2-LRVJ was significantly higher than that in the 1-LRVJ (p < 0.05). In the take-off phase, knee and hip extension impulses for the 1-LRVJ were significantly greater than those for the 2-LRVJ (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the 1-LRVJ produced greater leg stiffness than the 2-LRVJ did. We found that the 1-LRVJ caused greater lower-extremity stiffness and impulse compared to the 2-LRVJ, which is beneficial in the stretch-shortening cycle, and thus the more focus on practicing 1-LRVJs is recommended for coaches and athletes.
Aleksandra Kisilewicz, Marcin Janusiak, Rafał Szafraniec, Małgorzata Smoter, Bogdan Ciszek, Pascal Madeleine, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas and Adam Kawczyński
The study aimed to assess the effects of compression trigger point therapy on the stiffness of the trapezius muscle in professional basketball players (Part A), and the reliability of the MyotonPRO device in clinical evaluation of athletes (Part B). Twelve professional basketball players participated in Part A of the study (mean age: 19.8 ± 2.4 years, body height 197 ± 8.2 cm, body mass: 91.8 ± 11.8 kg), with unilateral neck or shoulder pain at the dominant side. Part B tested twelve right-handed male athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.4 ± 1.2 years; body height: 178.6 ± 7.7 cm; body mass: 73.2 ± 12.6 kg). Stiffness measurements were obtained directly before and after a single session trigger point compression therapy. Measurements were performed bilaterally over 5 points covering the trapezius muscle. The effects were evaluated using a full-factorial repeated measure ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test for equal variance. A p-value < .05 was considered significant. The RM ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in muscle stiffness for the upper trapezius muscle. Specifically, muscle stiffness decreased from 243.7 ± 30.5 to 215.0 ± 48.5 N/m (11.8%), (p = .008) (Part A). The test-retest relative reliability of trapezius muscle stiffness was found to be high (ICC from 0.821 to 0.913 for measurement points). The average SEM was 23.59 N/m and the MDC 65.34 N/m, respectively (Part B). The present study showed that a single session of compression trigger point therapy can be used to significantly decrease the stiffness of the upper trapezius among professional basketball players.
Meizi Wang, Lin Fu, Yaodong Gu, Qichang Mei, Fengqin Fu and Justin Fernandez
This study investigated differences of lower limb kinematics and muscle activity during table tennis topspin loop against backspin movements between elite players (EPs) and amateur players (APs). Ten EPs and ten APs performed crosscourt backhand loop movements against the backspin ball with maximal power. Vicon motion analysis and a MEGA ME6000 system was used to capture kinematics and surface EMG data. The motion was divided into two phases, including the backswing and swing. The joints’ flexion and extension angle tendency between EPs and APs differed significantly. The coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) values for EPs were all beyond 0.9, indicating high similarity of joint angles change. APs presented moderate similarity with CMC values from 0.5 to 0.75. Compared to APs, EPs presented larger ankle eversion, knee and hip flexion at the beginning moment of the backswing. In the sEMG test, EPs presented smaller standardized AEMG (average electromyography) of the lower limb muscles in the rectus femoris and tibia anterior on both sides. Additionally, the maximum activation of each muscle for EPs was smaller and MPF (mean power frequency) of the lower limb was greater during the whole movement. The present study revealed that EPs could complete this technical motion more economically than APs, meanwhile, EPs were more efficient in muscle usage and showed better balance ability.
Rubén Ayarra, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Aitor Iturricastillo, Daniel Castillo and Javier Yanci
The purpose of the present study was to describe performance in acceleration capacity, change of direction ability, vertical jump, horizontal jump, repeated sprint ability, and endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1) in futsal players, and analyze the differences according to competitive categories or levels. The total sample (n = 40) was divided into three groups depending on the category in which the participants competed: Second Division B (n = 15), Third Division (n = 12) and juniors (n = 13). All the tests were performed with participants’ regular competition shoes and on the usual playing surface, in an indoor pavilion with a floating wood floor. The results of the study did not show significant differences in acceleration capacity (5 and 15 m) or change of direction ability among the different categories. In contrast, significant differences were found among the categories with regard to horizontal jump and vertical jump capacity (p < 0.05); but not in all the variables analyzed. Performance in repeat sprint ability varied significantly among the different categories in 30 m (p < 0.01) but not in 5 m (p > 0.05). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 by the Second Division B and the Third Division groups was greater than that covered by the junior group. In the light of these results repeated sprint ability and aerobic endurance could be two discriminating qualities of the competitive level among different futsal categories.
Xiaole Sun, Yang Yang, Lin Wang, Xini Zhang and Weijie Fu
This study aimed to explore the effects of strike patterns and shoe conditions on foot loading during running. Twelve male runners were required to run under shoe (SR) and barefoot conditions (BR) with forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot strike patterns (RFS). Kistler force plates and the Medilogic insole plantar pressure system were used to collect kinetic data. SR with RFS significantly reduced the maximum loading rate, whereas SR with FFS significantly increased the maximum push-off force compared to BR. Plantar pressure variables were more influenced by the strike patterns (15 out of 18 variables) than shoe conditions (7 out of 18 variables). The peak pressure of midfoot and heel regions was significantly increased in RFS, but appeared in a later time compared to FFS. The influence of strike patterns on running, particularly on plantar pressure characteristics, was more significant than that of shoe conditions. Heel-toe running caused a significant impact force on the heel, whereas wearing cushioned shoes significantly reduced the maximum loading rate. FFS running can prevent the impact caused by RFS. However, peak plantar pressure was centered at the forefoot for a long period, thereby inducing a potential risk of injury in the metatarsus/phalanx.
Danica Michalickova, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic, Milica Miljkovic, Nenad Dikic, Marija Kostic-Vucicevic, Marija Andjelkovic, Vladimir Koricanac and Brizita Djordjevic
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted, in order to evaluate if Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti® L10 (Lallemand Health Solutions, Montreal, Canada) supplementation during three months could influence oxidative markers in the population of elite athletes: triathletes, cyclists and endurance athletes. Twenty-two elite athletes were randomized to either placebo (n = 12) or probiotic (n = 10) groups. The probiotic group received 2x1010 colony forming units of Lafti® L10. Before and after the supplementation serum samples were collected. Markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidative defense: superoxide dismutase (SOD), paraoxonase (PON), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, oxidative stress index, bilirubin, uric acid and albumin were determined in serum. Parameters of lipid status, as well as susceptibility to copper-induced oxidation of LDL particles in vitro were also determined. There was a significant interaction effect for MDA (p = 0.039), with a decrease in MDA in the probiotic group only (p = 0.049). There was a significant interaction effect for AOPP (p = 0.037), with a significant decrease in the probiotic group (p = 0.045). Interaction effect for SOD was approaching to formal significance (p = 0.108) and the post-hoc test showed a significant decrease in the probiotic group (p = 0.041) only. A significant correlation between AOPP and SOD (p = 0.012, r = -0.40) was found in the probiotic group at the end of the study. PON1 activity was decreased in both the probiotic (p = 0.032) and placebo group (p = 0.035). No significant changes in the remainder of the evaluated parameters were noted. In conclusion, probiotic strain Lafti® L10 exerts certain antioxidant potential, but further research is needed.
José María González Ravé, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Fernando González-Mohíno, Inmaculada Yustres, Rubén Barragán, Francisco de Asís Fernández, Daniel Juárez and Juan Jaime Arroyo-Toledo
This study used a power rack device to evaluate the effects of 2 different approaches to resisted swim training loads on swimming strength and performance. Sixteen male, youth national-level swimmers (mean age, 16.22 ± 2.63 years; body height, 169 ± 10.20 cm; body mass, 61.33 ± 9.90 kg) completed a 6-week specific strength-training program, and were then randomly assigned to one of the two groups: a standard training group (GS, n = 8) and a flat pyramid-loading pattern group (GP, n = 8). Strength and power tests along with specific swimming tests (50-m crawl and 50-m competition-style time trials) were conducted at baseline (pre-test), before the third week (mid-test), and after 6 weeks of intervention (post-test). Isokinetic swim bench tests were conducted to obtain measurements of force production and power, and 1RM tests with the power rack system were conducted to measure the maximum drag load (MDL) and specific swimming power. Following 6 weeks of intervention, the mean MDL increased (p < 0.05) by 13.94%. Scores for the 50-m competition style and 50-m crawl time trials improved by 0.32% and 0.78%, respectively, in the GP; however, those changes were not statistically significant. The GS significantly increased their time in the 50-m competition style by 2.59%, and their isokinetic force production decreased by 14.47% (p < 0.05). The 6-week strength-training program performed with the power rack device in a pyramidal organization was more effective than a standard linear load organization in terms of producing improvements in the MDL; however, it did not produce significant improvements in performance. The use of a strength-training program with a pyramidal organization can be recommended for specific strength-training in young swimmers during a preparatory period. However, in our study, that program did not produce significant changes in 50-m crawl and main competition style performance.
Sergio J. Ibañez, Javier Garcia-Rubio, Miguel-Ángel Gómez and Sergio Gonzalez-Espinosa
Rule modifications in basketball are used to develop the sport, and FIBA changes the basketball regulations periodically and constantly in search of a more attractive game. The objectives of this study were as follows: i) to characterise and identify the technical-tactical performance indicators which discriminated the game style according to the effect of rule modifications; and ii) to analyse the persistence of these indicators according to rule modifications over time. Analyses were made of all the editions of the current competition system of the Copa Del Rey in Spanish basketball. One hundred and forty matches were analysed, starting from the 1995-96 to the 2014-15 season. Data were gathered from the official competition web page (www.acb.com) The variables analysed included rule modifications, the number of ball possessions, points scored, one, two and 3-point field goals made and attempted, total rebounds, defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, steals, turnovers, blocked shots, dunks and committed and received personal fouls, score differences, as well as one, two and 3-point field-goal percentages. Several analyses were carried out: descriptive analysis to characterise the sample; ANOVA to identify differences between periods; discriminant analysis to determine technical-tactical performance indicators which best discriminated between each competition term and rule change period; and finally autocorrelation function and cross-correlation were used to estimate the persistency of performance indicators over time. Results show that rule changes affect the way basketball is played. Nevertheless, players and coaches are the ones who determine functional behavior in basketball.
Bruno T. Campos, Eduardo M. Penna, João G.S. Rodrigues, Mateus Diniz, Thiago T. Mendes, André F.C. Filho, Emerson Franchini, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Luciano S. Prado
Judo is a high-intensity intermittent combat sport which causes cardiac adaptations both morphologically and related to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Therefore, this study aims to verify the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV) at rest with performance in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) and whether groups with different RR values at rest show different performance in the SJFT and during post-test recovery. Sixteen judo athletes with 7.2 ± 3.9 years of training experience participated in the study. Before and after the SJFT execution HRV and lactate measurements were conducted. For HRV analysis, we used the mean interval RR, the standard deviation of the RR interval (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD), the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) in normalized and absolute units. The sample was split into two groups (low RR and high RR) to verify if this variable could differentiate between specific performance. For the SDNN, a significant and moderate correlation (r = 0.53) was found with the total number of throws and throws in the series A (r = 0.56) and B (r = 0.54) and for the RMSSD a correlation with throws during series B (r = 0.59) in the SJFT. However, the groups did not differ in performance and recovery. Therefore, HRV is related to intermittent judo performance; however, it cannot differentiate between judokas at different levels of performance.
David Casamichana, Paul S Bradley and Julen Castellano
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pitch shape modifications on heart rate responses and time-motion characteristics in soccer players during 5-a-side small-sided games (SSGs). Players completed four different SSG dimensions: (1) short narrow pitch (SN; 40 × 25 m), (2) short wide pitch (SW; 66 × 25 m), (3) long narrow pitch (LN; 40 × 50 m), and (4) long wide pitch (LW; 66 × 50 m). Twenty amateur soccer players (age: 21 ± 5 yr; stature: 176.8 ± 1.9 cm; body mass: 72.7 ± 3.7 kg) were monitored using a heart rate monitor and a 10 Hz GPS device. Mean maximum heart rate (%HRmax), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), peak running speed, total distance covered (TD), distance covered in four speed categories, number of moderate and high accelerations (Ac), decelerations (Dc), changes of direction (COD) and player load were recorded. Increasing the pitch length had a greater effect compared to increasing the pitch width especially on RPE (3.8, 6.3, 4.9 and 6.6 AU to SN, LN, SW and LW, respectively) and time-motion characteristics such as TD (101, 127, 108 and 131 m·min-1 to SN, LN, SW and LW, respectively), peak speed (4.8, 6.1, 5.2 and 6.2 m·s-1 to SN, LN, SW and LW, respectively), and the number of accelerations, decelerations, and changes of direction. The data demonstrates that increasing the length rather than the width of 5-a-side SSG has a greater impact on players’ responses in terms of increasing workloads.