In a cross-sectional cohort study, health-related quality of life of Slovenian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy was examined, and factors associated with it have been identified.
Caregivers of 122 children and adolescents with cerebral palsy were addressed to fill out proxy versions of HRQoL questionnaires (DISABKIDS generic and cerebral palsy module). Children and adolescents without cognitive deficit were asked to fill out the self-report versions.
Ninety-one families of 43 children (the mean age is 10 years, 6 months, SD 1.2; 26 males and 17 females) and 48 adolescents (the mean age is 14 years, SD 0.9; 23 males and 25 females) completed proxyreports. Forty-eight individuals were able to self-report (26 children and 22 adolescents). Health-related quality of life was perceived as good. Self-reporting participants scored higher than their caregivers (mean score 75.6, SD 15.9 versus mean 72.3, SD 17.9; p=0.048). Adolescents scored lower than children in all domains (mean score 69.4, SD 19.4 versus mean 80.8, SD 10.0; p=0.01). Higher age (p<0.001), pain (p<0.001) and disturbed sleep (p=0.002) were strong predictors of worse health-related quality of life. Social Inclusion and Independence domains received the lowest scores.
Slovenian children and adolescents with cerebral palsy have a good health-related quality of life, with Social Inclusion and Independence being the weakest domains. Children reported higher scores than adolescents or their caretakers. Pain was the strongest predictor of poor health-related quality of life.
Jakub Szyller, Mariusz Kozakiewicz and Piotr Siermontowski
Any stay in an environment with an increased oxygen content (a higher oxygen partial pressure, pO2) and an increased pressure (hyperbaric conditions) leads to an intensification of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage the molecules of proteins, nucleic acids, cause lipid oxidation and are engaged in the development of numerous diseases, including diseases of the circulatory system, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. There are certain mechanisms of protection against unfavourable effects of oxidative stress. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems belong to them. The latter include, among others, heat shock proteins (HSP). Their precise role and mechanism of action have been a subject of intensive research conducted in recent years. Hyperoxia and hyperbaria also have an effect on the expression and activity of nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS). Its product - nitrogen oxide (NO) can react with reactive oxygen species and contribute to the development of nitrosative stress. NOS occurs as isoforms in various tissues and exhibit different reactions to the discussed factors. The authors have prepared a brief review of research determining the effect of hyperoxia and hyperbaria on HSP expression and NOS activity.
The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children’s healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables.
14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat.
Low educational attainment influences parents’ behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families.
The purpose of this study was to identify the possibility of unnoticed reduction in salt content of bread as a basic food in the diet of preschool children. The response of children to less salty bread and the role of teachers and teacher assistants in the introduction of novelties into children’s nutrition ware studied.
Using hedonic sensory evaluation in the case of bread, the perception of salty taste and responses of preschool children to salt reduction were observed. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis obtained from the case study group, composed of 22 preschool children and 66 teachers and teacher assistants, was studied.
The results show that a 30% salt reduction was not registered by the children, while a 50% reduction of the salt content, compared to the original recipe, though noted, was not disruptive. The perception of taste and development of good eating habits at an early age could be influenced by teachers and teacher assistants’ verbal and non-verbal communication.
Salt reduction does not significantly affect the rating of satisfaction with the tested product. Educational personnel must be aware of their decisive influence on children’s perception of new and less salty products. Such an approach could represent a basis for creating children’s eating habits, which will be of particular importance later in their lives. The findings may possibly result in an update of the national nutrition policy.
This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.
Unexpected, abrupt death is always a great tragedy, both for a victim, as well as, for their family, friends, society or even country. However, death as a result of a suicide always seems to be unnecessary and difficult to accept by relatives. Every 40 seconds someone dies on the globe due to a kind of an auto-destruction act. Out of all suicides, the biggest group are adult men, frequently with mental disorders, who commit suicide by hanging themselves. The only suicide method where women are almost on the par with men is drowning (by many authors referred to as death by drowning).
The article demonstrates use of underwater remotely operated vehicles during an underwater visual inspection of a sunken vessel. The presented tasks were carried out in the course of underwater works performed from a Polish navy rescue vessel on the fishing boat WŁA-127. The discussed examples include a visual inspection of the sunken vessel and the support offered to Polish Navy rescue divers as they carried out underwater works.
Aleksander Sieroń, Jarosław Pasek, Mikołaj Pietrzak and Grzegorz Cieślar
For many years now we have been observing a growing number of patients with amputations performed on lower extremities due to chronic wounds occurring as a result of atherosclerotic lesions in peripheral arteries, thromboembolism as well as due to chronic ischaemia in lower extremities. Modern physical medicine is systematically enhancing treatment possibilities for patients with chronic wounds by an introduction of innovative therapeutic devices into clinical practice, which often allow to prevent amputations, accelerate the healing process, and, most of all, alleviate or completely eliminate pain. The article presents the therapeutic mechanism and methodology of one of such methods - local hyperbaric oxygen therapy with the use of a device called LASEROBARIA - S, alongside a description of its therapeutic effects in the case of two patients.
Gabriela Henrykowska, Marcin Lipiński, Maria Dziedziaczak-Buczyńska and Magdalena Zawadzka
In the past we have seen numerous cases of the purposeful utilisation of micro-organisms and toxins. This situation forced us to undertake actions aimed at a limitation of the production and storage of biological weapons. Unfortunately, despite the signing of the Convention on Biological and Chemical Weapons, many countries are still involved in research into the use of biological agents as a military resource.
The objective of the work was to perform an assessment of the knowledge of threats connected with bioterrorism as well as of the procedures in the case of a bioterrorist attack in two different urban populations - i.e. of below 50 thousand and above 500 thousand inhabitants.
The study was conducted in two towns, Nysa and Łódź. A self-designed questionnaire included 100 persons from each town, both men and women aged between 18 and 65 years. Despite the small differences between the researched populations, the knowledge of respondents concerning bioterrorist threats and procedures during an attack is insufficient.
On the basis of the obtained results we may conclude that there is a need to educate the entire society, irrespective of the place of residence, in order to raise an awareness with regard to the potential threat and procedures in the event of a bioterrorist attack.
Romuald Olszański, Piotr Siermontowski, Dariusz Juszczak, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki and Agnieszka Pedrycz
Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poland is an imported disease mainly occurring in tourists who travelled to tropical countries. Cutaneous symptoms occur as late as between ten and twenty days following the return from the tropics. Lesions connected with cutaneous leishmaniasis were most commonly diagnosed by Polish doctors as furuncle, ecthyma or ulceration and ineffectively treated for several weeks with antibiotics.
The paper presents the case of leishmaniasis in a 30-year-old male with an ulceration of the left shank, ineffectively treated with antibiotics over a period of four months. The ulceration was healed completely only after leishmaniasis was diagnosed and following the application of a treatment based on antimony derivatives, followed by hyperbaric oxygenation performed in a hyperbaric chamber.