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The use of different tobacco and related products, with and without flavours, among 15-year-olds in Slovenia

Abstract

Background

Different tobacco and related products, like waterpipe, e-cigarettes, are gaining popularity among adolescents in different countries; the data for Slovenia is currently limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest data on the use of different tobacco and related products, with or without flavours, among 15-year old students in Slovenia.

Methods

Data for 15-year-old students were drawn from 2014 Slovene database of the cross-national survey Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The survey sample was selected with stratified two-stage sampling method. The survey was performed in schools with a self-administered web questionnaire. The survey questionnaire included international compulsory, selected optional and national questions, all on a variety of topics related to youth health behaviour.

Results

25.2% of 15-year-old students reported current (past 30-day) use of any tobacco related product, mainly cigarettes (93.1% of users), followed by waterpipe (11.7%) and cigars, cigarillos and pipes (9.4%). Exclusive use of unconventional products is low (5.1% of users). 85.5% of users of any product used one product, 48.5% of users used products with flavours. The use of different products, one or more products, and flavoured products was related to gender.

Conclusion

A comprehensive tobacco control and prevention must address all tobacco and related products.

Open access
Using movies in family medicine teaching: A reference to EURACT Educational Agenda

Abstract

Introduction

Cinemeducation is a teaching method where popular movies or movie clips are used. We aimed to determine whether family physicians’ competencies as listed in the Educational Agenda produced by the European Academy of Teachers in General Practice/Family Medicine (EURACT) can be found in movies, and to propose a template for teaching by these movies.

Methods

A group of family medicine teachers provided a list of movies that they would use in cinemeducation. The movies were categorised according to the key family medicine competencies, thus creating a framework of competences, covered by different movies. These key competencies are Primary care management, Personcentred care, Specific problem-solving skills, Comprehensive approach, Community orientation, and Holistic approach.

Results

The list consisted of 17 movies. Nine covered primary care management. Person-centred care was covered in 13 movies. Eight movies covered specific problem-solving skills. Comprehensive approach was covered in five movies. Five movies covered community orientation. Holistic approach was covered in five movies.

Conclusions

All key family medicine competencies listed in the Educational Agenda can be taught using movies. Our results can serve as a template for teachers on how to use any appropriate movies in family medicine education.

Open access
The adaptation and implementation of guidelines for responsible media reporting on suicide in Slovenia

Abstract

Introduction

The existing literature provides evidence of the link between media reporting and suicide in terms of either preventive or provocative effects. Hence, working with media representatives on responsible reporting on suicide is of great importance. Until recently in Slovenia, there has been an obvious lack of communication between media representatives and suicidologists. The aims of the present study were twofold; firstly, to introduce the adaptation and dissemination of intervention on responsible media reporting, and secondly, to evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented intervention on suicide reporting.

Methods

We used a pre-post research design. Newspaper articles were retrieved over two 12-month periods: the baseline period and the follow-up period. In between, we had a year of implementation of our intervention program (launching and disseminating the Guidelines via workshops). Each retrieved article was rated qualitatively with respect to its adherence to the Guidelines.

Results

The comparison of baseline and follow-up periods revealed some significant differences. Reporting in the follow-up period was less sensationalistic, there was less reporting about specific cases of suicides and more about causes of suicide and pathways out of mental distress. Furthermore, in the follow-up period, there was a significant improvement related to headlines of media articles. Contact information about where to seek help was more often included in the articles.

Conclusion

The findings are promising, but working with the media needs to be continuous and ongoing if sustainable results are to be achieved.

Open access
Antenatal characteristics of Roma female population in Virovitica-Podravina County, Croatia

Abstract

Introduction

This study reports about antenatal characteristics of Roma minority population. The study was designed to investigate data about health behaviours known to be associated with reproductive outcomes of Roma women that have very good living conditions and relatively high resource availability.

Methods

A retrospective study included 204 Roma and 408 non-Roma hospitalised singleton births that occurred in the Maternity Ward of the General Hospital Virovitica in the period from 1991 to 2010. Data about women’s age, marital status, smoking, reproductive health (abortions, delivery), antenatal care, perinatal complications and gestational age were taken from hospital records and analysed.

Results

Roma women were averagely more than three years younger than non-Roma women, only 10.8% were married. Smoking was more frequent. The average number of births of Roma and non-Roma women was similar, averagely two children per woman. The rate of induced abortions in the Roma women was higher, while the frequency of spontaneous abortions was equal. Inadequate antenatal care of Roma women was associated with two times higher incidence of perinatal complications. A higher frequency of deliveries at home without professional assistance in Roma pregnancy resulted in lower perinatal outcomes. It was confirmed that Roma mothers give birth earlier (38+6 vs. 39+4 weeks) and have a higher incidence of premature births (9.3% vs. 2.2%).

Conclusions

In the comparison of antenatal parameters between the two researched groups, poorer prenatal outcomes in the Roma population were found, despite full integration and considerable improvement in living standards of this ethnic Roma population.

Open access
Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of nasal obstruction symptom evaluation questionnaire in Slovenian language

Abstract

Objectives

Nasal obstruction is highly subjective perception with numerous efforts being made towards objective measuring. Many instruments in quality of life studies encompass subjective symptom of nasal obstruction, but only NOSE has been properly validated and is easy to use in every day practice.

Methods

Multicenter prospective instrument validation and cross-cultural adaptation cohort study was conducted on patients with deviated nasal septum, with or without inferior turbinate hypertrophy, to develop the Slovenian version of NOSE questionnaire. A cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was done in five steps, producing Slovenian NOSE-si, used on a pilot group to confirm the quality of adapted tools and, afterwards, on the main study and control group. Symptoms were lasting for more than 12 months and all had an indication for septal surgery. A control group was selected from a pool of healthy subjects, self-assessed as having no rhinological complaints.

Results

NOSE-si was used on 116 patients (58 from the study group vs. 58 from the control group). High degree of internal consistency - Cronbach’s a 0.971 and reliability after retesting - Goodman-Kruskal gamma coefficient 0.984 was proven. Responsiveness was confirmed in the surgery subgroup with standardized response mean (SRM) 2.76 (p<0.001).

Conclusions

The study produced a valid Slovenian version of NOSE questionnaire through rigorous and well defined five-phase effort to maintain scientifically comparable QoL instrument, and may be used by clinicians and researchers.

Open access
The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy On the Level of Lipid Peroxides in Rat Brains

Abstract

The problem of oxygen toxicity, and its effect on the nervous system, is an important topic with regard to the application of oxygen and breathing mixes in the pursuit of diving, as well as in the light of the striking synergy between the effects of oxygen and ionising radiation. Studies on the level of lipid peroxides were performed on rat brains. The animals were subjected to exhaustive physical strain in a pressure chamber and oxygen at the pressure between 0-3 atm for the period of 25-60 minutes. Parallel research was conducted on rested animals. Following the dissection, the brain was homogenised and the levels of lipid peroxides were determined using the Wollman method with TBA. In animals subjected to physical effort over the specified time, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were observed in comparison to the control group. An increase in lipid peroxide level was noted in rats manifesting oxygen toxicity symptoms. On the basis of the above findings, the authors presume that the growth of lipid peroxides in the brain in cases subjected to hyperbaric oxygenation should be recognised as a far-reaching harmful effect of oxygen, occurring after enzymatic damage and the violation of cellular antioxidant protection. At low oxygen overpressures, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were noted as compared to the control group.

Open access
Encouraging employees to report verbal violence in primary health care in Serbia: A cross-sectional study

Abstract

Introduction

Workplace violence is a serious and multidimensional problem that adversely affects professional and personal lives of employees. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of verbal violence as a part of psychological violence among employees in primary health care in Belgrade, and to identify contributing factors of verbal violence in the workplace.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the final analysis included 1526 employees, using multi-stage sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Studies Research, developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The general response rate was 86.8% (1526/1757).

Results

It was found that 47.8% of the participants were subjected to verbal violence. The main source of verbal violence was patient/client, 55.6% of employees did not report the incident. Among those who did not report the incident, 74.9% believed that reporting violence was useless. The interaction with patients (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.02-2.06) and work between 6pm and 7am (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.60) were significant contributing factors of verbal violence.

Conclusion

The results are indicative of a high prevalence of verbal violence against employees in primary health centres, which could have undesirable consequences. Conducting a better organizational measure and encouraging employees to report workplace violence could reduce the prevalence of verbal violence.

Open access
The evaluation of MRSA surveillance cultures by the number and combinations of anatomical sites

Abstract

Introduction

The identification of patients infected and/or colonised by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is necessary for the timely introduction of measures for infection control. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of combinations of MRSA surveillance swabs routinely taken by health institutions in the country.

Methods

All surveillance samples, which were sent for a microbiological analysis to detect MRSA with the culture method in 2014, in the three departments for medical microbiology of the National Laboratory for Health, Environment and Food, were included in this study.

Results

Among 65,251 surveillance cultures from 13,274 persons, 1,233 (2.1%) were positive (490 positive persons). Prevailing positive surveillance cultures were throat swabs (31.3%), followed by nose swab (31.2%), skin swab (18.9%), perineum (16.4%) and wound swabs (1.4%). The contribution of other samples, such as aspirate, urine and excreta, was under 1%. We found no statistically significant differences in the frequency of detection of a positive patient, if the combination of samples NTS (nose, throat, skin) or NTP (nose, throat, perineum) was analysed. However, statistically significant differences were confirmed when any of the anatomic sites would be omitted from the sets of NTP and NTS (chi square; p<0.01). Adding additional samples resulted in only 24 additional positive patients (4.9%).

Conclusions

The results indicate that increasing the number of surveillance cultures above three does not add much to the sensitivity of MRSA surveillance, the exception could be wound. The swabs from the perineum and from the skin are exchangeable.

Open access
The Evaluation of Sanitary-Epidemiological Service Conditions On a Submarine

Abstract

Service on a submarine is the most stressful and psychologically challenging form of military service. It is characterised by specific living and sanitaryepidemiological conditions which are far from typical. This work is based on the analyses of reports formulated from research conducted by a working environment laboratory, and on the control protocols of the sanitary supervision and control team (WOMP) Gdynia, from the Kobben submersible vessels in the years 2014 and 2015. Military Centres of Preventive Medicine hold supervision over Military Units pursuant to generally applicable regulations in the civil environment and standardised NATO norms. Measurements concern the level of noise, mechanical vibrations, chemical agents, electromagnetic radiation, physiochemical and biological water and kitchenware tests. The objective of the research is to evaluate the service conditions on a submersible vessel with regard to sanitary-epidemiological aspects such as exposure to infectious and occupational diseases. In selected stations, the conducted measurements indicate an increased level of noise, electromagnetic radiation and excess quantities of bacteria colonies on kitchenware.

Open access
An exploration of diabetic foot screening procedures data by a multiple correspondence analysis

Abstract

Aims

Gangrene and amputation are among most feared complications of diabetes mellitus. Early detection of patients at high risk for foot ulceration can prevent foot complications. Regular foot screening (medical history, foot examination and classification into risk groups) was introduced at the out-patient diabetes clinic in Ljubljana in November 1996. We aimed to explore the relationships between the observed variables, check the appropriateness of the risk status classification and of the post-screening decisions.

Methods

The data of 11.594 patients, obtained in 18 years, were analysed by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Most of the observed variables were categorical.

Results

The majority of the screened population was free of foot complications. We demonstrated an increasing frequency and severity of foot problems with an increasing age, as well as the association between the loss of protective sensation and the history of foot ulceration, foot deformity and callus formation, the history of foot ulcer or amputation and acute foot ulceration. A new finding was that the location of foot deformity points was closer to female than male gender, indicating the possible role of fashionable high-heel footwear. The appropriateness of therapeutic decisions was confirmed: the points representing absent foot pulses and referral to vascular specialist were close together, as well as points representing foot deformity and special footwear prescription or callus formation and referral to pedicurist.

Conclusions

MCA was applied to the data on foot pathology in the population attending the out-patient diabetes clinic. The method proved to be a useful statistical tool for analysing the data of screening procedures.

Open access