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Hybridization Revisited: New Insights from the Evolutionary Approach

Abstract

Purpose: This article is a conceptual paper based on an extensive literature review performed as a preparation for replicating a study of Japanese hybrid factories in Central and Eastern Europe. Methodology: It focuses on hybridization showing that although the concept itself originates in evolutionary biology, its application in the field of International Business bears a strong resemblance with the cultural approach and Japanization. Findings: Given some recent criticism of the hybridization studies, this article argues that the literature applying the concept would benefit from going back to its origins (i.e. the evolutionary approach), which in itself is a well know paradigm in organizational studies and could help in overcoming current conceptual limitations.

Open access
The Impact of Moderators and Trust on Consumer’s Intention to Use a Mobile Phone for Purchases

Abstract

Purpose: This paper examines the consumers′ acceptance and usage of technology, which is an important and widely discussed topic. The aim is to explore the impact of moderators (gender, age, experience in using mobile Internet technologies) and trust towards one’s intention to use a mobile phone for purchases (to acquire goods). Methodology: Empirical research was conducted among Warsaw students with the use of the UTAUT2 model (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology), extended so as to encompass the concept of trust. Data was analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-SEM) and the SmartPLS 3 programme. The multi-group analysis was employed (PLS-MGA) to measure the impact of moderating variables. Findings: Research results indicate that trust has no significant impact on one’s intention to use a mobile phone for purchases. Gender is an important moderator of the relationship between the independent variable of price value and the independent variable of habit with the dependent variable of the intention to use a mobile phone for purchases. Age is an important moderator in the relationship between the independent variable of hedonic motivation and the independent variable of habit with the dependent variable of the intention to use a mobile phone for purchases. Experience is not an important moderator of any relationship specified in the hypotheses.

Open access
Leadership Competences Among Managers

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the results of a survey conducted among managers (N=38) in the framework of the project “Development of the Bounded Leadership Theory”. The research juxtaposes two types of variables: (1) leadership competencies outlined in Kozminski’s theory (i.e. anticipatory, visionary, value-creating, mobilizing, self-reflection) with (2) three psychological predispositions of leaders, such as intelligence, personality and ability to influence others. The tested predispositions represented three groups: non-variable traits, or permanent characteristics (intelligence), partially variable characteristics (personality) and variable characteristics (influence tactics). Methodology: A total of 38 middle and senior managers, students of the MBA programme at Kozminski University, took part in the survey. Participants filled out a preliminary version of the Leadership Competence Questionnaire, as well as tests pertaining to intelligence, personality and influence tactics. The hypotheses were tested using Spearman’s rho correlation. The research has brought interesting results relating to the correlation between the five tested competencies and leadership predispositions. Findings: Permanent and partly stable characteristics do not correlate with leadership competencies, i.e. a high score in leadership competencies is not necessarily synonymous with high intelligence levels or positive personality traits. Correlations have been observed between mobilization skills and influence tactics in the surveyed sample, i.e. legitimacy and personal appeals that leaders have recourse to and, in the case of value-creating competencies, an interesting correlation with legitimacy. Originality: The study constitutes an important contribution to the extant literature, as - first and foremost - it represents a new approach to the understanding of leadership competencies. Secondly, it reveals correlations between complex skills, i.e. competencies, and permanent, relatively permanent and variable characteristics of contemporary leaders. Thirdly, it is the starting point for further research on leadership competencies.

Open access
Spending Reviews – a Tool to Support the Efficient Management of Public Funds

Abstract

Purpose: Respective European Union member states′ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fiscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries′ public finances, as a result of the global financial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fiscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia), and by those that introduced them for the first time (Ireland, Canada, France). However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by significant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries′ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review.

Open access
Stock Market Reaction to CEO Appointment – Preliminary Results

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine shareholders′ reaction to the decision of the supervisory board to appoint a CEO in companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Methodology: An event study and the mean-adjusted model were applied. The abnormal returns were measured as the CAAR in the entire (-60, + 60) window and selected sub-windows. Findings: The obtained values of abnormal returns indicate the shareholder’s negative reaction. Throughout the observation window, they oscillate slightly below zero, and in the window (0, +20) they are negative at -1.566%. Irrespective of the observation window, negative abnormal returns were obtained for over half of the observation (52-57%). Therefore, preliminary results indicate the predominance of the information effect over the real one. The decrease in market value as a result of the event may result from an increase in investors′ uncertainty as to the effects of changes in strategy and skills of the new CEO. Originality: The research is a unique one. To date, no one has carried out research into shareholders′ reaction to a CEO appointment in either the Polish or Central and Eastern European capital markets. They primarily bring the value of cognition of shareholders′ behaviour in the analysed event, which is reflected in share prices. They extend the literature on the signalization instruments, i.e. the activities that boards can undertake due to the new information transmitted to the capital market participants and stakeholders. The market reaction to a CEO appointment will without a doubt interest investors; the institutions responsible for supervision (which in the case of Poland is the Financial Oversight Commission) and the legislator in charge of regulations that prevent insider trading while promoting corporate disclosure transparency.

Open access
Analysis on Online Purchase of Clothing in Romania

Abstract

Clothing is the second important category of products sold in Romania through the Internet. The number of online buyers is increasing although not up to values registered in other European countries. This raises the question of the reasons for reluctance or poor use of online purchases and of the behaviour of those who still buy clothes online. The article focuses on presenting the results of a study conducted in one of Romania counties in 2016. Data is supplemented with information obtained from secondary sources, namely a national study conducted in 2014. We identified characteristics of Dambovita residents regarding the factors of influence, brakes on purchase and the actual online purchase behaviour.

Open access
A Case Study on Vedanta Alumina Ltd (VAL) Orissa India: State and FDI versus Democracy?

Abstract

Foreign investment in extractive industries in the developing economies has seldom remained free from various types of controversies. Vedanta Aluminum Ltd (VAL) integrated aluminum project in Orissa is an important project for Vedanta Resources Plc. The project suffered major setbacks as the Indian government withdrew the permission for bauxite mining in Niyamgiri and issued a show cause notice under Environment protection act in 2010 for undertaking construction activity without obtaining environmental clearance for its alumina expansion project at Lanjigarh in Kalahandi district in Orissa. This case illustrates how a decentralized policy and bureaucracy in a country like India deal with myriad problems of resource curse together with attendant consequences, despite the fact that as compared to several developing nations India has a better track record of legislative framework, an experienced bureaucracy and a regulatory framework.

There are institutional rigidities and limits of public policy formulation and implementation which adversely affect a diverse range of stakeholders: essentially because economic growth priorities override all feasible considerations of protecting and furthering stakeholder interests. India is not the only state which has undergone such an ordeal, many developing countries have suffered as well from their relative inability to deal with the issues of resource curse; but this case study assumes further significance because based on the actual final decisions a future road map in terms of a realistic public policy both for domestic investors as also foreign investors in extractive industries will be decided.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of the Distribution of Goods in Two Outlets: Carrefour and Auchan Ploiesti

Abstract

Retail holds a very important role in the national and international economy, representing an intermediate link in the producer-consumer relationship. The emergence of hypermarkets in Romania has led to the enthusiasm of the customers, who are attracted by the availability of a wide range of products in a single shop, in an environment full of colors, bright, with a pleasant atmosphere, with promotions and tasting of products with sweepstakes and free services. So hypermarkets have become popular among the Romanian citizens, while competition has intensified as the years have elapsed.

Open access
Cost Centers from Hospital Units. Study Case

Abstract

Current status of the hospital units is worrying: insufficient funding, increasing the number of cases considered / treated, providing quality services at public hospital unit. In this research we have undergone an empirical research carried out in the hospital units of category III and IV, from Alba County, this sample selection aims to identify an optimal solution to exercise management control which should serve to management decisionmaking. Responsibility centers, at the level of hospital unit, establish the liability for each segment of expenditure, expenditure tracking and proper grounding even their places of training, delimitation expenditure which does not strictly dependent on the production activities that are related strictly by the process; establishing the deviations of preset expenses levels; establishing a system of rules allowing highlighting the responsibilities of each performer, introducing a system of resource allocation and tracking of the use of their by developing specific cost budget for each responsibility center. The disadvantages of decentralization based on activity centers consists in increase the consumption of resources in certain activities, unclear delimitation of cause-effect relationships that create difficulties in adopting the relevant decisions by management, etc.

Open access