Browse

You are looking at 151 - 160 of 92,384 items for

Open access

Ioannis K. Argyros and Santhosh George

Abstract

We present a local convergence analysis of the super-Halley-like method in order to approximate a locally unique solution of an equation in a Banach space setting. The convergence analysis in earlier studies was based on hypotheses reaching up to the third derivative of the operator. In the present study we expand the applicability of the super-Halley-like method by using hypotheses up to the second derivative. We also provide: a computable error on the distances involved and a uniqueness result based on Lipschitz constants. Numerical examples are also presented in this study.

Open access

Reinhard Nolz and Marek Rodný

Abstract

Employing evapotranspiration models is a widely used method to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETREF) based on weather data. Evaluating such models considering site-specific boundary conditions is recommended to interpret ETREF-calculations in a realistic and substantiated manner. Therefore, we evaluated the ASCE standardized ETREF-equations at a subhumid site in northeastern Austria. We calculated ETREF-values for hourly and daily time steps, whereof the former were processed to sum-of-hourly values. The obtained data were compared to each other and to ET-values measured by a weighing lysimeter under reference conditions. The resulting datasets covered daily data of the years 2004 to 2011.

Sum-of-hourly values correlated well (r2 = 0.978) with daily values, but an RMSE of 0.27 mm specified the differences between the calculation procedures. Comparing the calculations to lysimeter measurements revealed overestimation of small ETREF-values and underestimation of large values. The sum-of-hourly values outperformed the daily values, as r2 of the former was slightly larger and RMSE was slightly smaller. Hence, sum-of-hourly computations delivered the best estimation of ETREF for a single day. Seasonal effects were obvious, with computations and measurements being closest to each other in the summer months.

Open access

Shengqi Jian, Zening Wu and Caihong Hu

Abstract

Tree transpiration plays a determining role in the water balance of forest stands and in seepage water yields from forested catchments, especially in arid and semiarid regions where climatic conditions are dry with severe water shortage, forestry development is limited by water availability. To clarify the response of water use to climatic conditions, sap flow was monitored by heat pulse velocity method from May to September, 2014, in a 40–year–old Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. plantation forest stands in the semiarid Loess Plateau region of Northwest China. We extrapolated the measurements of water use by individual plants to determine the area–averaged transpiration of the woodlands. The method used for the extrapolation assumes that the transpiration of a tree was proportional to its sapwood area. Stand transpiration was mainly controlled by photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit, whereas soil moisture had more influence on monthly change in stand transpiration. The mean sap flow rates for individual P. tabulaeformis trees ranged from 9 to 54 L d−1. During the study period, the mean daily stand transpiration was 1.9 mm day−1 (maximum 2.9 and minimum 0.8 mm day−1) and total stand transpiration from May to September was 294.1 mm, representing 76% of the incoming precipitation over this period. Similar results were found when comparing transpiration estimated with sap flow measurements to the Penman–Monteith method (relative error: 16%), indicating that the scaling procedure can be used to provide reliable estimates of stand transpiration. These results suggested that P. tabulaeformis is highly effective at utilizing scarce water resources in semiarid environments.

Open access

Zeki U. Yumun and Erol Kam

Abstract

In this study, the heavy metal and radioactive properties of Iznik Lake were investigated. Concentration values of the first (Ag, Bi, Mo, Sn, Se, Zn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sb) and second (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Al and Mn) group of elements in borehole 1 (BH-1) drilling did not show much variation from the top to the bottom of the drilling. Concentration values of the first group of elements in borehole 2 (BH-2) drill samples decreased at higher levels of drilling. In addition, natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were measured by gamma spectrometry, and the results of environmental natural radioactivity of Iznik Lake and its surroundings were determined. In the measurement results, Ra-226 was found to be below the world average value at all locations. It is assumed that the determination of K-40 values above the average values was due to agricultural activities carried out intensively in the study area. Th-232 values were found to be below the world average value in drilling samples; Cs-137 values were below the background level in all samples. According to these results, the study area does not contain any unnatural radioactivity.

Open access

D.L. Kiran Kumar, H.G. Nagaraja and K. Venu

Abstract

In this paper we study the nature of Ricci solitons in D-homo-thetically deformed Kenmotsu manifolds. We prove that η -Einstein Kenmotsu metric as a Ricci soliton remains η -Einstein under D-homothetic deformation and the scalar curvature remains constant.

Open access

Amira A. Rashad, Sara Nageeb El-Helaly, Randa T. Abd El Rehim and Omaima N. El-Gazayerly

Abstract

Reduced bioavailability of azelnidipine is related to its poor aqueous solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism, which hinder its efficacy. These problems were addressed by implementing (1) a liquisol technique for promoting the dissolution rate in a controlled-release manner and (2) a core-in-cup bucco-adhesive drug delivery system as an alternative to the oral route. A 33 factorial design was used to study the effects of polymer type (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC Na), chitosan, or Carbomer P940) concentration (5, 10 or 15 %) and preparation technique (simple mix, liquisol or wet granulation) on the dissolution and mucoadhesion of core-in-cup azelnidipine buccoadhesive tablets. Tablet micromeritics, swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro release were characterized. Statistical analyses of these factors show ed significant effects on the studied responses, where F#16 prepared by the liquisol technique and containing 15 % CMC Na was chosen with an overall desirability of 0.953.

Open access

Maria C. Mariani, Osei K. Tweneboah, Miguel A. Valles and Pavel Bezdek

Abstract

This work is devoted to the generalization of previous results on Gleason measures to complex Gleason measures. We develop a functional calculus for complex measures in relation to the Nemytsky operator. Furthermore we present and discuss the interpretation of our results with applications in the field of quantum mechanics. Some concrete examples and further extensions of several theorems are also presented.

Open access

Marcin Gackowski, Marcin Koba, Katarzyna Mądra-Gackowska and Stefan Kruszewski

Abstract

New methods for assaying trimetazidine dihydrochloride on the basis of thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometry are proposed and compared in the paper. In HPTLC/UV-densitometry, separation is achieved by using a mobile phase composed of ammonia-methanol (30:70, V/V) on silica gel HPTLC plates F254. Quantification using a non-linear calibration curve is accomplished by densito-metric detection at 230 nm. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of trimetazidine dihydrochloride is carried out from the fourth derivative of the absorbance at 233 nm in peak-zero mode. Statistical comparison led to the conclusion that there is no significant difference between the two studied methods and, moreover, that they demonstrate satisfactory accuracy and precision for routine applications.

Open access

Jakub Vysloužil, Kateřina Kubová, Veronika Nováková Tkadlečková and David Vetchý

Abstract

The original purpose of vaginally applied microbicides was to slow down the HIV epidemic among the population until an effective vaccination was developed. Nowadays, antiretrovirals applied in the form of gels or vaginal rings are considered most prominent in this field and are tested via vaginal or, rarely, rectal applications in numerous clinical studies (9 different antiretroviral drugs in 33 clinical studies, especially in Africa). Only tenofovir (1 % gel) and dapivirine (25 mg in vaginal ring) progressed into the phase III clinical testing. Their efficiency depended on the user´s strict adherence to the application regimen (for tenofovir 54 %, for dapivirine 61 % in participants over 25 years of age). Despite this, they are expected to be important and effective tools of preventive medicine in the near future. This review summarizes the results obtained during long-term clinical testing (2005–2018) of antiretroviral drugs against vaginal and rectal transmission of HIV infection.

Open access

Błażej Baic, Beata Kozłowska, Robert Kwiatkowski and Marcin Dybek

Abstract

Photon beams with wide energy ranges from 4 MV to 25 MV are commonly used in radiotherapy nowadays. In recent years, there has been a strong interest in a certain modification of a radiotherapeutic apparatus by the application of the so-called flattening filter-free (FFF) beam. Several advantages of FFF beams over standard flattening filter (FF) beams are noticed, and this technical solution has aroused great interest among radiotherapeutic facilities. The goal of the present study is to investigate the differences between the conventional FF and unflattened FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams in some basic dosimetric parameters and their influence on the whole radiotherapeutic treatment. The data provided here include the detailed characteristics as follows: percent depth dose (PDD), beam profile, edge of a half-profile, total scatter correction factor (TSCF) and head scatter correction factor (HSCF) for FF and FFF 6-MV and 10-MV photon beams from the Elekta Versa HD accelerator in the Katowice Oncology Center in Poland.