Mihaela Morosan, Mohamad Al Hassan, Miguel A. Naranjo, María P. López-Gresa, Monica Boscaiu and Oscar Vicente
Genetic improvement of crop drought tolerance has become an urgent need for increasing agricultural yields and food production, to feed a growing human population in the context of global climate change. To get insights into the most relevant mechanisms underlying drought resistance in beans, we have analysed the responses to water deficit of three Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and one P. coccineus (runner bean) cultivars, focusing on the accumulation of specific osmolytes, a conserved response to abiotic stress in plants. Changes in osmolyte levels were correlated with the relative tolerance to water stress of the studied cultivars. Drought tolerance in Phaseolus largely depends on the accumulation of myo-inositol; glycine betaine may also contribute to tolerance in P. coccineus (but not in P. vulgaris). Proline, another common osmolyte, is a reliable marker of the level of stress affecting bean plants, but is not directly involved in tolerance mechanisms, as its drought-dependent accumulation is lowest in the most tolerant cultivar. We suggest that, by measuring the levels of proline and myo-inositol in water-stressed plants, a large number of cultivars could be easily and rapidly screened to select promising candidates to be used in breeding programmes for improving drought tolerance in beans.
Honey bee colonies are often infected with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae which cause adult honey bee disease called nosemosis. All honey bee colony members can be infected with these species. In addition, it is claimed to be the main cause of honey bee winter losses in many countries. Nosema spores are expected to resistant the environmental conditions and their infectivity continues for a long time because of long-term durability of fungal spores. In this study, the viability of Nosema spores were investigated in terms of storage situations under laboratory conditions. Honey bee samples that were collected from apiaries in 2011 were investigated to detect the presence of Nosema species with real-time PCR amplification studies. After determination of Nosema species, each sample was divided in two groups. One of these groups was used to find Nosema spore concentration. Nosema solutions were divided and stored at both -20°C and +4°C. The spore concentration was measured every year in the period 2011-2015. Other group of honey bee samples was also stored at -20°C and every year was used for Nosema spore counting. Furthermore, it was examined the infectivity of Nosema spores with sugar solutions which obtained each sample using cage experiment techniques. According to results, when we compare the solutions annually, there is no change at Nosema spore concentration of the solution in -20°C and honeybee samples in -20°C. But reduction was seen at Nosema spore concentration of the solution in +4°C. Nosema spore infectivity tests revealed that infectivity of Nosema spores has not changed significantly between 2011 and 2015. This is the first time mixed Nosema spores found more infective than one-type spore after prolonged exposure to different conditions.
Martin Koller, Denis Vadlja, Gerhart Braunegg, Aid Atlić and Predrag Horvat
Competitive polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs) production requires progress in microbial strain performance, feedstock selection, downstream processing, and more importantly according to the process design with process kinetics of the microbial growth phase and the phase of product formation. The multistage continuous production in a bioreactor cascade was described for the first time in a continuously operated, flexible five-stage bioreactor cascade that mimics the characteristics involved in the engineering process of tubular plug flow reactors. This process was developed and used for Cupriavidus necator-mediated PHA production at high volumetric and specific PHA productivity (up to 2.31 g/(Lh) and 0.105 g/(gh), respectively). Based on the experimental data, formal kinetic and high structured kinetic models were established, accompanied by footprint area analysis of binary imaged cells. As a result of the study, there has been an enhanced understanding of the long-term continuous PHA production under balanced, transient, and nutrient-deficient conditions that was achieved on both the micro and the macro kinetic level. It can also be concluded that there were novel insights into the complex metabolic occurrences that developed during the multistage- continuous production of PHA as a secondary metabolite. This development was essential in paving the way for further process improvement. At the same time, a new method of specific growth rate and specific production rate based on footprint area analysis was established by using the electron microscope.
Ariola Bacu, Kristjana Comashi, Markeljana Hoxhaj and Vjollca Ibro
Plants have evolved effective defense mechanisms against stress-induced oxidative damages, among which an important role play glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This huge class of proteins have been reported to increase in a number of crops under temperature and saline stresses. However, different wheat cultivars display specific characteristics of expression. In our study we controlled the transcription of GSTF1 gene at leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) of local cultivar Dajti, evaluated previously as resistant toward salt and temperature stresses. Three different concentrations of NaCl, 50, 100, 200mM, were applied at plants germinated in Hoagland culture, and total ARN was extracted from leaves collected at 0-3-6-10-24-72 hrs after treatment. Seeds from the same cultivar were germinated in Hoagland culture under heat treatment, keeping controls at 25°C/20°C and the rest under a 35°C /25°C-day/night regime in a growth chamber. Total RNA was extracted after one week, 30, and 45 days following HT. RT-PCRs were performed using primers specific for GSTF1. Concentration of amplicons was evaluated in agarose gels. In conclusion, the transcription of GSTF1 at Dajti cultivar is reduced during the time of exposure on saline conditions, does not depend on salt concentration, and is not affected by prolonged temperature stress.
Georgiana Gabriela Codină, Dumitru Zaharia, Sorina Ropciuc and Adriana Dabija
The effect of magnesium ions from gluconate salt at the level of 100, 150 and 200 mg/100g addition on empirical dough rheological properties from the 550 wheat flour type was studied. Dough rheological properties during mixing (dough development time, dough stability, degree of softening), α amylase activity and gelatinization temperature were analyzed by using a Falling Number and Amylograph. During fermentation were analyzed the maximum height of gaseous production, total CO2 volume production, volume of the gas retained in the dough at the end of the test and the retention coefficient by using a Rheofermentograph device. By magnesium gluconate (Mg) salt addittion dough become more strength by an increase of stability and a decrease of the degree of softening. With Mg addittion wheat flour dough volumes were affected. Compared to the control sample, the dough volume decreased with the increased level of Mg. From the point of view of the α amylase activity, it decreases with the increase level of Mg whereas the gelatinization temperature increases.
Ozden Ozgun Acar, Isil Gazioglu, Ufuk Kolak, Alaattin Sen and Gulacti Topcu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the human central nervous system. It is one of the most common neurological disorders around the world and there is still no complete cure for MS. Purification of a terpenoid from Capparis ovata was carried out and its structure was elucidated as stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol, myristate (3β,22E-stigmasteryl myristate; SDM) by NMR and mass spectral analyses. No information regarding its any health effect is available in the literature. In the present study, we have described its effects on inflammatory factors such as the expression levels of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules as well as apoptosis/infiltration and myelination in SH-SY5Y cells. The expression levels of proinflammatory or inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as NF-κB1, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10 and HIF1A along with T-cell activating cytokines such as IL-6 and TGFB1 were significantly downregulated with SDM treatment. Moreover, the expression levels of the main myelin proteins such as MBP, MAG and PLP that are essential for healthy myelin architecture were significantly up-regulated. The results presented in this study strongly suggest that the SDM offers a unique possibility to be used with autoimmune diseases, including MS due to its activity on the manipulation of cytokines and the promotion of myelin formation.
Yusuf Mulazim, Cevdet Berber, Hakkı Erdogan, Melike Hacer Ozkan and Banu Kesanli
Affordable and practical synthesis methods in drug development have always been very attractive. Herein, microwave assisted synthesis was utilized to prepare piperazine substituted 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolone derivatives in 5 minutes. Structural characterization of these 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolone derivatives was achieved by IR, NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. Since these types of compounds have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities there biological activities were also examined. Indomethacin (INDO) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) were used as reference. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in mice test was used to study anti-inflammatory activity. Compound 1 (100 mg / kg dose) showed the longest anti-inflammatory activity among the title compounds synthesized. For the analgesic activities, both hot-plate and tail-flick tests were employed. Compound 3 was found to have the highest activity in the hot-plate test whereas in the tail-flick test, compounds 1 and 2 showed higher anti-nociceptive activity.
Sefa Durmuş, Aslıhan Dalmaz, Görkem Dülger and Duygu Bircan Kadıoğlu
Thio-Schiff bases are becoming increasingly widespread in various branches such as the preparation of certain medicines, cosmetic products, and polymer production. In particular, the presence of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor and antimalarial properties of Schiff bases containing sulfur in the structure has made these compounds attractive in different disciplines. In this study, different derivatives of dimeric disulfide-Schiff bases have been synthesized. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized these compounds were investigated in vitro against some human pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii and C. glabrata). Test microorganisms were isolated from the patients appyling to Medical Faculty Hospital of Duzce University were used. Diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of the compounds.standard antibacterial (Cefotaxime, Amoxicillin/clavulanicacid) and antifungal (Posaconazole) antibiotics were used as the control group and the results were compared. The result indicated that antimicrobial activity of Disulphide-Schiff Base Derivatives exhibited less activity against bacteria as compared to AMC30 (Amoxicillin/clavulanicacid), but highly effective against bacteria as compared to CTX30 (Cefotaxime). In addition, the compounds exhibited less activity against yeast.
Alena Anatolievna Famina, Sergey Victorovich Malyshev and Oksana Yurievna Urbanovich
Grain yield is closely associated with kernel weight. Cell wall invertase (CWI) and sucrose synthase (SUS) are one of the most important enzymes for sink tissue development and carbon partition, and has a high association with kernel weight. Allellic composition of the TaCwi-A1 and TaSus2-2В loci was tested in 79 winter wheat cultivars using a co-dominant markers CWI21- CWI22, which amplified 404 or 402-bp and Sus2-185/589H2- Sus2-227/589L2, which amplified 423 or 381-bp fragments in different wheat accessions respectively. Some samples carried the mutation in the TaCwi-A1 locus that negatively affects thousand-kernel weight (TKW) were shown to have TKW higher than the cultivars and lines that do not have this mutation in their genomes and despite the significant differences in TKW (from 39,4 to 59,8 g), all investigated varieties possess Hap- L haplotype. It can be attributed to the fact that the TaCwi-A1 and TaSus2-2В are only two of the genes associated with kernel weight and its allelic composition analysis cannot explain all phenotypic variances.
In this work we used publicly available raw RNA-seq data to elucidate mechanisms of flax fiber biogenesis by measuring expression of cell-wall related genes (cellulose synthase, cellulose synthase-like and chitinase-like genes) in stem of flax (Linum usitatissimum cv. Bethune). Using public RNA-sequence data we have quantified and characterised the expression of the specific cell-wall genes in the top, middle and bottom parts of the Bethune flax stem. The most prominent findings are: Secondary cell-wall cellulose synthase (CesA) genes are expressed differentially in phloem and xylem in all parts of Bethune stem, in contrast with primary cell-wall cellulose synthase genes. Total expression level of cellulose synthase-like (Csl) genes is tissue invariant (although, CslG and CslE are differentially expressed) and smaller than the total expression of cellulose synthase genes. The CslD2D3 subgroup dominates total expression of CslD genes in both xylem and phloem. Expression levels of all expressed chitinase-like (Ctl) genes are tissue dependent in all parts of stem. Total expression level of chitinase-like genes is much higher than expression of cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes in both tissues.