A 14-d study was undertaken to test the acute toxicity of a new preparation Vetom 21.77 based on the predacious fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. A total of 40 healthy 5-day-old broiler chickens (Hubbard F15, 100 ± 5 g), that had previously gone through a required 5-days adaptation to the environment, were orally dosed with the drug for 5 consecutive days at different doses, after which their health status was assessed daily up to the end of the experiment. According to the results, no substantial changes in the physiological state of the chickens were detected during the experiment. Internal organs weighing revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, though weight coefficient values of internal organs of treated chickens slightly exceeded those of the control group. Some haematological parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group, without going beyond reference ranges. All chickens used in the experiment survived the study. The preparation has not produced any toxic effect even at a higher dose (4000 µL/kg bw/day). It is concluded that Vetom 21.77 pertains to preparations of IV toxicity class.
Ksenija Ilievska, Branko Atanasov, Toni Dovenski, Ozren Smolac, Boris Stojanov and Plamen Trojachanec
The serum concentration of certain acute phase proteins significantly increases during various pathological conditions in cattle. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of claw disorders etiology on the concentrations of two major acute phase proteins in dairy cattle: haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid protein A (SAA). Fifty dairy cows with claw pathology were included. Fourteen clinically healthy heifers served as controls. The animals were subdivided in 5 groups according to the pathological findings on their claws: 1. Heel horn erosion (HE), 2. Acute laminitis (AL), 3. Sole ulcer (SU), 4. Digital dermatitis (DD) and 5. White line separation (WLS). Hp and SAA concentrations were measured in serum samples using commercial ELISA kits. Higher concentrations of both Hp and SAA were found in the AL and SU groups (p<0.01) compared to the HE, DD and WLS and control groups. Dairy cows in the DD group had higher (p<0.05) Hp and SAA concentrations than the HE and WLS groups and the controls. The serum values between the HE, WLS and the control group did not differ significantly. The presented results indicate that the claw diseases are associated with a systemic acute phase response. Hp and SAA could be used as valuable biomarkers for early detection of claw diseases in dairy cows.
Georgi G. Zhelev, Kojcho P. Koev, Vladimir D. Dimitrov and Vladimir S. Petrov
The anticoagulant rodenticides are the most commonly used toxicants to control rodents nowadays. Therefore, developing resistance to them is an issue of great importance for pest control. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of synanthropic rodents in the Stara Zagora region, Bulgaria to some of the most significant first (warfarin and coumatetralyl) and second (bromadiolone and brodifacoum) generation anticoagulants. Resistance tests were carried out by a standard protocol using lethal feeding period tests and blood clotting response tests according to the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (Paris, France) standard. Studies were performed on 278 wild synanthropic rodents – 67 house mice (Mus musculus), 153 roof rats (Rattus rattus) and 58 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus). The rodents belonged to 11 populations inhabiting 9 animal farms in the region of Stara Zagora, Southern Bulgaria. High-level resistance to warfarinwas established in 100% of surveyed house mice and 92.1% of roof rats. Resistance to coumatetralyl was registered in 62.5% of the tested roof rats. Low-level resistance to bromadiolone was found in 38.5% of the surveyed roof rats and 23.1% of house mice. There was no resistance registered in brown rats. The sensitivity of all three rodent species to the strategic anticoagulant brodifacoum was high, and there were no signs of resistance. The results proved the resistance among synanthropic rodents and led to the conclusion that the resistance in house mice and roof rats to warfarin and coumatetralyl tends to be the main issue in pest control.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from urine samples of dogs. A total of 22 Enterococcus sp. samples were isolated and identified from 100 urine samples collected by cystocentesis from dogs of both sexes. The identification with species specific primers for multiplex PCR revealed that all 22 isolates (100%) belonged to E. faecium. Vancomycin resistance was found in 10 (45%) samples of E. faecium strains with PCR study by vanA and vanB primers.
Pinar Erkekoglu, Ming-Wei Chao, Chia-Yi Tseng, Bevin P. Engelward, Ozge Kose, Belma Kocer-Gumusel, Gerald N. Wogan and Steven R. Tannenbaum
Exposure to alkyl anilines may lead to bladder cancer, which is the second most frequent cancer of the urogenital tract. 3,5-dimethylaniline is highly used in industry. Studies on its primary metabolite 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP) showed that this compound causes oxidative stress, changes antioxidant enzyme activities, and leads to death of different mammalian cells. However, there is no in vitro study to show the direct effects of 3,5-DMAP on human bladder and urothelial cells. Selenocompounds are suggested to decrease oxidative stress caused by some chemicals, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce the risk of bladder cancer. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether selenocompounds organic selenomethionine (SM, 10 µmol/L) or inorganic sodium selenite (SS, 30 nmol/L) could reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in UROtsa cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP. 3,5-DMAP caused a dose-dependent increase in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species, and its dose of 50 µmol/L caused lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in different cellular fractions. The comet assay also showed single-strand DNA breaks induced by the 3,5-DMAP dose of 50 µmol/L, but no changes in double-strand DNA breaks. Apoptosis was also triggered. Both selenocompounds provided partial protection against the cellular toxicity of 3,5-DMAP. Low selenium status along with exposure to alkyl anilines can be a major factor in the development of bladder cancer. More mechanistic studies are needed to specify the role of selenium in bladder cancer.
Cardiovascular toxicity is the most common cause of fatality in the first 24 hours of poisoning with aluminium phosphide (AlP). Most often manifesting itself in cardiac dysrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of amiodarone prophylaxis against cardiac dysrhythmia in 46 patients with acute AlP poisoning. They were divided in two groups of 23: one receiving amiodarone and the other not (control). The treatment group received amiodarone prophylaxis in the initial intravenous bolus dose of 150 mg, followed by a drip of 1 mg/min for six hours and then of 0.5 mg/min for eighteen hours. Both groups were Holter-monitored for 24 hours since admission. Save for amiodarone, both groups received the same standard treatment. Amiodarone had a significant beneficial effect in reducing the frequency of ST-segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation plus atrial fibrillation (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively), but the groups did not differ significantly in mortality (9 vs 11 patients, respectively). The mean time between ICU admission and death (survival time) was significantly longer in the treatment group (22 vs 10 h, respectively; P=0.03). Regardless its obvious limitations, our study suggests that even though amiodarone alone did not reduce mortality, it may provide enough time for antioxidant therapy to tip the balance in favour of survival and we therefore advocate its prophylactic use within the first 24 h of AlP poisoning.
Vugar Ali Turksoy, Lutfiye Tutkun, Servet Birgin Iritas, Meside Gunduzoz and Serdar Deniz
In exposure to toxic metals such as lead, determining lead and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) is essential for early detection of diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an model for early detection of inflammation and onset of atherosclerosis in the absence of clinical findings in young workers, which could help physicians take timely an action and start treatment. This study included 49 metal workers exposed to lead occupationally and 50 unexposed administrative workers (controls) who underwent immunological analysis for cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and atherosclerosis markers (h-FABP and VCAM-1), toxicological analysis for lead, and routine biochemical analysis (ALT, AST, creatinine) at the Ankara Occupational and Environmental Diseases Hospital in 2017. Lead levels correlated with IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α (r=0.469, r=0.521 and r=0.279, respectively, p<0.01) but did not significantly affect h-FABP and VCAM-1 levels.
The study objective was to test the hypothesis that simvastatin and fenofibrate should cause an increase in butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity not only in the plasma and liver but also in the brain of normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. Catalytic enzyme activity was measured using acetylthiocholine (ATCh) and butyrylthiocholine (BTCh) as substrates. Normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats were divided in four groups receiving 50 mg/kg of simvastatin a day or 30 mg/kg of fenofibrate a day for three weeks and three control groups receiving saline. Simvastatin and fenofibrate caused an increase in brain BuChE activity in both normo- and hyperlipidemic rats regardless of the substrate. The increase with BTCh as substrate was significant and practically the same in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats after simvastatin treatment (14–17% vs controls). Simvastatin and fenofibrate also increased liver and plasma BuChE activity in both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats regardless of the substrate. In most cases the increase was significant. Considering the important role of BuChE in cholinergic transmission as well as its pharmacological function, it is necessary to continue investigations of the effects of lipid-lowering drugs on BuChE activity.
Emperipolesis is considered a physiological phenomena often present in various pathophysiological conditions, but its etiology is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the number of megakaryocytes and the percentage of emperipoletic cells in the sternal and femoral bone marrow of Wistar rats. Five types in the thrombopoiesis lineage (megakaryoblasts, promegakaryocytes and megakaryocytes - acidophilic, basophilic and thrombocytogenic) were determined. Except for basophilic megakaryocytes, significant differences were found for number of thrombopoietic cells in the sternal and femoral bone marrow. A larger number of thrombocytogenic megakaryocytes were present in the sternal bone marrow. Emperipoletic cells were significantly present in the femoral compared to the sternal bone marrow. Emperipolesis was typical for lymphocytes and neutrophils individually, while emperipolesis with two or more cells within thrombopoietic cell was also present (1-7 %) and significant differences between the sternal and femoral bone marrow were detected. Emperipolesis was found in all analysed rats and it most commonly occured within mature megakaryocytes and rarely megakaryoblasts, while it was not recorded in the promegakaryocytes. The high incidence of megakaryocytes with emperopolesis in rats could be a consequence of “normal” cell retention in the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes while passing blood cells to circulation or related to haematopoietic response due to high incidence of inbreeding.
The aim of the present study was to report the primary gross and microscopic lesions, as well as etiological agents of field cases of pneumoenteritis in neonate and juvenile calves. The research was done with 370 calves from 6 cattle farms in 4 regions of the country. The age of the animals was from 24 hours to 25 days. Clinical and epidemiological studies were carried out with newborn and growing calves in all farms. For rapid antigenic and viral detection of pathogens, Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306 Detection of Rota, Corona, E.coli F5, Crypto and Clostridium perf. in bovine stool (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium), and Monoclonal Antibody anti-bovine Coronavirus FITC conjugated) 0,5 ml (20X), BIO 023, (BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium) were used. Eighteen carcasses of calves with signs of pneumoenteritis syndrome (PES) were submitted to gross anatomy and histopathological studies. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) was the main etiological agent involved in calf pneumoenteritis. The macro- and micro lesions in the lung and the ileum of calves affected by PES are relevant with regard to the differential diagnosis of the syndrome and its differentiation from respiratory (IBR, BVD, BRSV, M. haemolytica etc.) and intestinal (Cryptosporidium parvum, bovine rotaviruses, bovine coronaviruses and Escherichia coli K99 (F5) diseases in this category of animals.