This is the first part of the material concerned with the analysis of drive systems in remotely controlled unmanned underwater vehicles. The paper discusses the problem of classification of UUVs, mainly remotely controlled, with an indication of four different approaches to this issue. Moreover, the article discusses the nomenclature used in relation to various components of the discussed drive systems and thrusters, as well as indicates the functionality of such systems along with the advantages and disadvantages of the analysed design solutions. The method of analysis of drive systems, its methodology and the results will be the subject of a subsequent publication of the authors.
This is the second part of material concerned with the analysis of drive systems in remotely controlled underwater vehicles. The first part involved the problem of classification of unmanned underwater vehicles, mainly remotely controlled, as well as the nomenclature used in relation to various components of the discussed drive systems and thrusters. The functionality of particular drive systems was discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the analysed design technologies. This material presents the method of conducting an analysis of drive systems, its methodology and results.
Tadeusz Doboszyński, Bogdan Łokucijewski, Piotr Siermontowski, Marek Rejman and Romuald Olszański
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of composition of various breathing mixes on physical capacity of rats swimming in hyperbaric conditions. The said effect was determined on the basis of results of a swim test performed in a pressure chamber. The study was performed with the use of atmospheric air, a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (N2/O2) at a ratio of 89.5/10 and 92/7.5, as well as a mixture of argon and oxygen at a ratio of 79.5/20 (Ar/O2). The tests were conducted at a pressure range between 0-4 atm. The results suggest that the physical capacity of the tested animals decreased along with pressure increase regardless of the breathing mix used. Due to the fact that the burdening of rats with physical effort in hyperbaric conditions intensifies the adverse effects of components of breathing mixes on their performance, it seems appropriate to continue the study of physiological responses to breathing mixtures of various compositions in human body subjected to physical effort while under water.
Stanisław Klajman, Kazimierz Dęga, Janusz Torbus and Zbigniew Wlazłowski
The barofunction of paranasal sinuses is of great significance in terms of diving safety and comfort. The paper aimed at determining the changes in the aeration of maxillary sinuses as a result of diving activities on the basis of a radiological image. Inter alia, it was observed that individuals who frequently practise diving show persistent changes in the radiological image of sinuses, however, usually they do not influence the diving capacity.
Sławomir Kujawski, Joanna Słomko, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Jacek J. Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe and Paweł Zalewski
Changes observed in the core body temperature of divers are the result of a multifaceted response from the body to the change of the external environment. In response to repeated activities, there may be a chronic, physiological adaptation of the body’s response system. This is observed in the physiology of experienced divers while diving. The purpose of this study is to determine the immediate and delayed effects of hyperbaric exposure on core temperature, as well as its circadian changes in a group of three experienced divers. During compression at 30 and 60 meters, deep body temperature values tended to increase. Subsequently, deep body temperature values showed a tendency to decrease during decompression. All differences in core temperature values obtained by the group of divers at individual time points in this study were not statistically significant.
Romuald Olszański, Maciej Konarski and Piotr Siermontowski
The paper discusses the treatment results of ten patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD) who did not respond to standard pharmacotherapy and underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Each patient was subject to 10 oxygen exposures at pO2 2.5 ATA (~ 250 kPa) with the duration time of 60 minutes. In the period of implementation of the hyperbaric procedures the general treatment plan was suspended for all patients while maintaining typical local treatment. Clinical evaluation was performed in the study group as well as determination of levels of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE and C3 and C4 complement. All patients indicated clinical improvement and a decreased IgE immunoglobulin and complement C3 level upon the completion of the exposure cycle. Taking into account the authors’ own observations and data from literature, an overall improvement in the clinical status and a decrease in the level of immunoglobulin E and C3 complement following a cycle of exposures may be indicative of an immunomodulating HBOT effect on AD, whereas hyperbaric oxygenation may constitute a therapeutic option for some patients with AD, especially those exhibiting a poor response to standard treatment.
In relation to EU countries, the level of safety on Polish waters is still low. The drowning rate in our country is two times higher. Since 2013, there has even been an increase in the number of drownings. Typically, following each incident, attention is focused on the quality of work of the rescue services, however, there are multiple factors to be considered when seeking where responsibility for this state of affairs actually lies. In contemplations, the main subjects of analysis were external threats (atmospheric conditions, legal conditions, trends in water recreation) and threats generated by various groups of waterrelated subjects (administrators, service providers, rescuers, cleaning and medical services, participants enjoying recreation on or in the water). The purpose of this article is to present the issues of water safety from the perspective of the responsibility of various subjects, which are active in this environment. The attractiveness of recreation in or on water results largely from the emotions caused by increased risk. Often the greater the danger, the greater the attraction. At the same time, it is accompanied by an increased sense of security, excessive self-confidence and excessive trust, which weakens the natural defense mechanism. Hence, so many accidents in the water are caused by the victims themselves. In the article we are looking for an answer to the question about the reasons for such a phenomenon.
Zalika Klemenc-Ketiš, Igor Švab and Antonija Poplas Susič
A new form of family practices was introduced in 2011 through a pilot project introducing nurse practitioners as members of team and determining a set of quality indicators. The aim of this article was to assess the quality of diabetes and hypertension management.
We included all family medicine practices that were participating in the project in December 2015 (N=584). The following data were extracted from automatic electronic reports on quality indicators: gender and specialisation of the family physician, status (public servant/self-contracted), duration of participation in the project, region of Slovenia, the number of inhabitants covered by a family medicine practice, the name of IT provider, and levels of selected quality indicators.
Out of 584 family medicine practices that were included in this project at the end of 2015, 568 (97.3%) had complete data and could be included in this analysis. The highest values were observed for structure quality indicator (list of diabetics) and the lowest for process and outcome quality indicators. The values of the selected quality indicators were independently associated with the duration of participation in the project, some regions of Slovenia where practices were located, and some IT providers of the practices.
First, the analysis of data on quality indicators for diabetes and hypertension in this primary care project pointed out the problems which are currently preventing higher quality of chronic patient management at the primary health care level.
Ethical principles of assessing medical research are to the greatest extent defined by the Nuremberg Code, the Declarations of Geneva and Helsinki, and the Oviedo Convention. Pursuant to their directives various national Medical Ethics Committees (MECs) were established which assess the ethics of research according to the risk and benefit ratio of the persons involved. Following the example of other countries, medical ethics committees eventually appeared also in hospitals and some medical and educational institutions around Slovenia. Due to an increased number of ethical challenges, it is of great importance to define the jurisdiction of the Slovenian MECs in order to ensure their coordinated operation. Exclusive jurisdiction of the national MEC includes multicentre and multi-national research, drug research (phases 1–3), high-risk research and research related to doctoral theses. The jurisdiction of the sectoral MECs includes testing the conditions for research, monitoring the execution and overviewing the final reports. A more significant jurisdiction of the sectoral MEC is preserving an ethical environment in their institutions. A network of Slovenian MECs is to be organised in the form of a jurisdiction pyramid where each member has its own obligations and responsibilities and plays an important role in relation to the entire structure.
Simona Korenčan, Bojana Pinter, Mojca Grebenc and Ivan Verdenik
The objective of the study was to determine the course and outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescents compared to women aged 20–24 years in Slovenia.
In the retrospective study, the course of pregnancy and labour and the perinatal outcome of newborns in primiparous adolescents aged ≤19 years (study group) have been compared to the control group of primiparous women aged 20–24 years. The study group was further divided into a study subgroup of adolescents aged ≤17 years. Data were retrieved from the National Perinatal Information System in Slovenia for the period 2008–2012. Altogether, 13,663 women and their newborns were included.
Adolescent pregnancy was associated with increased rates of unknown estimated date of delivery, preterm labour, low birth weight newborns, small for gestational age newborns and low gestational weight gain. Spontaneous labour was more common in adolescents, while emergency and elective Caesarean sections were less common than in women aged 20–24 years. In addition, pregnancy in adolescents aged ≤17 years was associated with increased rate of maternal anaemia and labour without complications. Higher rates of smoking, lower rates of parenting school attendance, lower rates of pregnancy check-ups and screening tests in pregnancy such as nuchal translucency in adolescents were found.
The results of the study show that adolescent pregnancy is related to higher health risks for pregnant adolescents and their newborns. In addition, adolescents are subject to poorer prenatal care comparing to older women.