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The Romanian Social Classes in Three Years in Romania by James William Ozanne

Abstract

The paper analyses the image of the social classes existing in Romania in the second half of the 19th century as it emerges from the work of the English writer James William Ozanne, the first president of the Anglo-American Press Association in Paris, between 1882-1912. The Romanian society is seen through the eyes of a diplomat with a keen sense of observation, yet also subjective sometimes, who manages to create an accurate depiction of the society of a state which he did not consider to be among the first ranking ones. It is interesting to notice that he borrows “valuable information“ from other writers, especially Vaillant, Regnault and Obedenare, but, unlike other foreign travellers who wrote about the Romanians and their way of life, he is not ashamed to acknowledge this fact. J.W. Ozanne openly admits the fact that he liked the people among whom he had lived for three years, but his book is not a happy one. He did his duty of respecting the truth as much as possible, without entering into too many details, and the image of the social classes that he managed to create is one that enjoys the “right combination of light and shadows”.

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The School and the Community Towards the Prevention and Reduction of School Dropout

Abstract

This paper aims to emphasize the importance of the partnership between school and community for preventing early school leaving and reducing the school dropout. In order to achieve a successful partnership, it is necessary to go through some steps of “exploration-evaluation-planning-training-initiation-achievement-checking-regulation-consolidation-action-implementation-assessment”. Thus, the four conditions for achieving this process need to be respected: communication, coordination, cooperation and partnership. The educational partnership is the form of communication, cooperation and collaboration offering the optimal support to the child at the level of the educational process. It involves a unity of requirements, options, decisions and educational actions between educational factors and it is carried out within the educational act. A successful partnership implies identifying goals and common interests useful for the partners and the community, finding the optimal way to organize and manage the available resources in order to achieve the purpose, identifying the competencies of those involved in these projects in order to achieve most of them and implementing changes for the benefit of the institution. Preventing the school dropout should be the highest priority assumed equally by the school and the community. Beyond national policies and strategies which are more or less applied, each community has its own characteristics and dropout causes have different values from one community to another. So, the two entities, the school and the community, need to find personalized and coherent solutions to prevent this phenomenon, which will surely define the structure of the future generations.

Open access
The Science We Need in Order to Achieve Progress in the Social Development

Abstract

The aim of this study is to gather sufficient evidence and arguments in order to prove to society that during the process of change in thinking and especially in the effective practical implementation of such educational models, high levels of efficiency can be achieved at all hierarchical levels in key systems for the society and the state.

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Seasonal (Kharif, Rabi and Zaid) Precipitation, Potential Evapotranspiration and Aridity Index with Respect to Various Agro Ecological Zones of India

Abstract

Climate change has very significant impact on livelihoods and food security. The geospatial technology provides a better understanding of various themes related to climate change. This study examined the seasonal (kharif, rabi and zaid) long term (1970-2000) monthly climatic parameters such as precipitation, potential evapotranspiration over the country of India. The seasonal Aridity Index was computed and analyzed with respect to various agro-ecological zones of India. The analysis of long term mean precipitation (mm) during kharif, rabi and zaid season was found to be in the range of (14-7463), (0-914) and (0-1722) respectively. The analyses of the long term mean potential evapotranspiration in all seasons was found notable high in arid/semiarid zones. The Aridity Index during kharif, rabi and zaid seasons was found to be in the range of (0.19-4.27), (0.03-0.73) and (0.01-1.48) respectively. The seasonal Aridity Index in some of the agro-ecological zones of the central India in the arid and semiarid regions was found to be notably low. A concrete plan with synergic approach including integrated watershed management and traditional ecological practices will help to fulfill crop water demand and maintain adequate soil moisture for the present and future crops.

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Secular Trends in BMI and Waist Circumference and the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Austrian Candidates for Conscription from 2007 To 2016

Abstract

The increase of prevalence of overweight and obesity progressed worldwide and is associated with lifetime diseases. Operational readiness of armed forces is depending on anthropometric data and physical fitness of soldiers. The aim of the study was the investigation of temporal and regional trends of BMI and waist circumference of Austrian conscripts.Data came from the Ministry of Defence of Austria. Mean of body mass (BM, kg), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2,) and waist circumference (WC, cm) across age, urbanity and regions were analysed, effect size was checked by Cohen’s d and f eta. Significance was selected at p values <0.05.Mean of BM, BMI and WC showed significant differences, effect sizes were trivial. A significant high correlation was ascertained by BM (r = 0.78 – 0.82) and BMI (r = 0.77 – 0.81) to WC in all age cohorts. Regional differences were detected in BM, BMI and WC. The results show a significant increase of BM, BMI and WC in the years 2007 to 2010 and a stabilisation during the rest of investigation period. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young men has reached a worrying level for public health in Austrian society.

Open access
Short Profiles of Different European Investigation Order Domestic Regulations in the European Union

Abstract

Тhe regulatory fragmentation and the excessive administrative formalities in the area of international legal assistance in investigation have created the need for a unitary mechanism. This article is focused on the relatively new instrument for international judicial cooperation in criminal matters – The European Investigation Order (EIO). Specifically, it examines the reflection of Directive 2014/41/EU in several Member States of the EU and provides an overview of the separate national systems. The analysis contained in this paper seeks to identify the issuing, the receiving and the executing authorities in each of the considered countries. Main aspects of the EIO’s regulation such as, for an example, its form and content, its transmission, proportionality assessment, deadlines and refusal grounds are seen from the perspective of different national legislations. Although the present study is not intended to be exhaustive, it could clarify to some extent whether an“one-size-fits all” solution in the area of evidence-gathering is an appropriate approach. Special attention is paid to the protection of the right to defence provided by the examined domestic regulations concerning the EIO.

Open access
Smart, Secure and Safe Energy Management Approach – An Education Framework Improving the Competence Grid of the Professionals in the Energy Sector

Abstract

The paper presents evidence based brand new approach of the permanent rise of the competences and know-how transfer between researchers, teachers and professionals aiming to ensure the specific expertise of the human resources engaged in energy security management. The approach has a collaborative and integrative nature and relies on the hybridization between energy management, urban development planning, environmental management, civil protection, protection of critical infrastructure and the national security applied fields. The authors redefine the conventional understanding of the energy security by describing a practically oriented integrated approach of teaching energy security, based on 3 separately existing concepts: the concept for smart energy security grid, those for the smart cities and the standard operative procedures applied to energy security management. Smart, Secure and Safe Energy Management (3SEMA) is both behaviorally and technically oriented and presented in a circular chart, involving all actors on certain territory with the purpose to apply smart, secure and safe approach in governing the energy sector, taking into consideration the dynamic technological changes and the concept of intelligent urban use.

Open access
Smart Simulation for Decision Support at Headquarters

Abstract

While serious games are being widely adopted by NATO and partner nations, their use is currently limited to training and operations planning. In this paper, we explore new methods that use simulations for decision support during the execution of military operations. During this phase, the commander makes decisions based on knowledge of the situation and the primary objectives. We propose here to take a simulation containing smart and autonomous units, and use it to create new kinds of decision support tools capable of improving situation awareness, and consequently the quality of decisions. The breakthrough behind this initiative is the realization that we can provide HQ decision makers with access to a version of the information that smart simulated units use to make decisions. To ensure the approach was sound we first studied decision-making processes, and analyzed how situation awareness improves decision-making. After analysis of the decision-making processes at various headquarters, and the types of decision criteria employed, we are able to produce innovative information, computed by the simulation, and fed by the command and control system. We then propose a prerequisite architecture and describe the first results of our proof of concept work based on the SWORD (Simulation War gaming for Operational Research and Doctrine) simulation.

Open access
Some Considerations Related to NATO Intervention for Disaster Mitigation (Case Study: Pakistan Earthquake)

Abstract

In the last period of time, disasters have become a regular part of global life, no matter if we consider natural or manmade disasters. These events create emergencies when their effects impact on nations/organizations which are not able to cope with the consequences, especially because of the lack of inherent resources. Hence, NATO has assumed an important role in international disaster relief by becoming involved in the provision of relief following natural disasters, all these being in accordance with the founding principles of the Alliance. The purpose of this paper is to spotlight the importance of NATO’s specific structures dealing with disaster relief (EADRCC-Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre, EADRU - Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Unit etc.) and to present the main aspects and lessons learned from the intervention in Pakistan earthquake (2005).

Open access
The State of Nominal Convergence in Romania in the Context of Joining the Euro Area

Abstract

The repeated postponement of the deadlines set for Romania’s accession to the Eurozone as well as the challenges facing the nominal convergence criteria raised many questions among the European community regarding the competitiveness of the Romanian economy in relation to the economies of the European countries adopting the single currency. The present paper aims to present the current state of nominal convergence our country manages to achieve and to import compliance with these criteria by exemplifying the concept of optimal monetary areas. The adoption of the single currency must be achieved in the context of sustainable convergence that guarantees the minimization of costs caused by the renunciation of national monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the present paper presents the optimal context that Romania’s shift to the single currency should take into account in order to maximize its benefits from the beginning of this irreversible process.

Open access