Bus shelters, which form a part of daily lives of people, generally provide service as small areas of urban space created for short-term periods of waiting. From the perspective of spatial design, it is important that an environment of good quality is provided for users of bus-shelters. This study proposed hypotheses to research how the physical design of bus shelters (location-accessibility, anthropometric characteristics, roofing and walls, lighting, electronic information, seating, etc.) affected general satisfaction of their users. To establish users’ general satisfaction, direct observation was performed and the hypotheses were tested through surveys conducted at bus-shelters selected in two areas of Istanbul (Ataköy-Beşyol) with different economic levels, and an assessment was made of the users’ satisfaction analyses and related problems of bus shelter design. In the conclusion, it was established that there is a significant correlation between general satisfaction and, among other things, the perceived degree of difficulty in getting on and off buses, the harmonization of bus shelter design with the surroundings, the adequacy of a shelter for summer use, the comfort of a shelter, the adequacy of seating, and the extent to which the shelter is maintained.
The aim of this paper is to characterise commuting trends in Riga agglomeration, while taking into account proximity to Riga and territorial accessibility. Changes of commuting range are looked at through literature analysis (historical context) and by using descriptive analysis and parametric tests (current situation). Results indicate that while both proximity to Riga and access to state level roads have a significant impact on commuting flows, it is the former which has a more significant impact.
The research focuses on local community dialogue with genius loci as certain subjectivity of urbanized environment. The following research methods were used: abstraction, analogy, generalization, synthesis, and semantic analysis. Sets of informational units as system of genius loci symptoms, offered in this article, can be used for the presentation of genius loci. Such data figure as network of knowledge highlighted from a cultural-ecological point of view. Some traits of genius loci of Lentvaris manor park are presented.
Urban shrinkage is among of the most dangerous current risks for the preservation of liveability (e.g. residential function) in formerly prosperous historical residential and industrial districts. The planning for shrinkage emerged only in the 21st century in order to manage and prevent growing urban decay, depopulation and housing crisis through the application of smart structural adjustment policies and planning instruments for formerly heavily industrialised North American and Asian cities. Both shrinkage and liveability planning are still very “fuzzy” concepts and have been applied in ways that are not always consistent (e.g. for measuring decline, migration, demographics). However, remains the question of what (methods or approaches) would prevent (control) this well-known but evidently “wicked” and still less explored phenomenon of “loss of liveability” in a historical built environment. This paper aims to review the urban shrinkage and liveability problematic and prevention solutions (methods) based on studies of theory and practice of urban planning.
Regarding the revitalization of intra-urban centres, this review focuses on consumers’ perceptions of the physical environment with emphasis on the tangible elements in the external shopping environment. Based on the typologies of environmental elements, a systematic review of 59 retailing articles by means of content analysis was conducted. Several design and ambient elements were identified as relevant to consumers, but an in-depth understanding of their effects is needed to enhance the attractiveness of intra-urban centres.
Muhammad Usman Bajwa, Aisha Khan and Muhammad Nadeem
Changing trends of human settlements and urbanization have a significant impact on all segments of society. Lahore is the most crowded and urbanized district of Punjab. Women participate in the development of the city, they are required to visit workplaces, and experience public places. Subsequently, these public places are grounds of ferocity and discomfort. The study examines the female’s perception regarding safety at public places and the consequent factors contributing towards the insecurity of females. Regression analysis is carried out to interpret the causal relationship between public places and safety elements. In conclusion, it was established that safety elements should be kept in mind to achieve safer environment. The research necessitates urban planners and designers to introduce features for women safety, privacy and comfort in the design of public places.
Ingrida Povilaitienė, Jūratė Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė and Kęstutis Zaleckis
Cityscape identity might be objective and subjective. Still, it is more often analysed from person’s perspective, and analysis of urban fabric itself is not considered sufficiently. Thus, this research aims to find out if fractal analysis method could be used to fill that gap. Kaunas city was chosen for the case study. The research was conducted in three stages: qualitative assessment (designation of the zones with different semantic load in Kaunas), quantitative assessment (calculation of fractal indexes of panoramic and streetscape views from previously established zones), and comparison of these approaches. To sum up, the research confirmed that there is a relationship between the results of different approaches. Thus, fractal analysis could be used as one of the tools for quantitative assessment of cityscape identity.
This paper discusses particular aspects of the development of cultural identity through diverse, multi-layered architectural heritage and argues that by combining architectural expertise with community engagement the inclusive modernist heritage collection can be created. The research is based on the case of Palanga resort. The paper focuses on the issue of creating a list of cultural heritage of Palanga town as a coherent and continuous architectural collection and discusses the approaches to be used in engaging communities into the process of heritage making.
Considering the post-colonial society and its multiple relationship with the built environment of that time in Lithuania, the changed needs and requirements, and today’s high commercial interest, it is essential to find effective ways for the protection and further development of heritage of the recent past.
Jolita Sinkienė, Huriye Armağan Doğan, Kęstutis Zaleckis, Jurga Vitkuvienė, Indrė Gražulevičiūtė Vileniškė, Brigita Tranavičiūtė and Tomas Grunskis
This paper presents the methodology and results of the research aimed to identify the current and potential functions of open public spaces in post-Soviet modernist urban districts in the context of sustainable urban development. The research is based on the sociotope mapping methodology facilitating the identification and interpretation of functional characteristics of urban open public spaces. The data for this research has been collected in three selected pilot multi-apartment modernistic districts of Kaunas city (Lithuania) using two sociological research tools – site observation protocols and user questionnaires. The research results show the need for actors involved in planning and (re)development of modernistic districts to incorporate a larger diversity of space elements enabling different local area users (individuals, families, organizations) to use and experience more natural, social, economic and other values available locally at different time (year, day) periods.
The aim of this article is to discover the discourse of living spaces of Riga through the films of the Soviet period and to examine essential changes of private space in different residential structures. This study contributes to the field of human geography by conducting content analysis of a vast number of Soviet films with a focus on the development and spatial organization of apartments in Riga. The analysis of 264 films illustrates that living spaces are rarely portrayed in the Soviet cinema and they mostly provide intentionally formed idealistic information about the qualities and achievements of Soviet private space.