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Parisa Shabibi, Peiman Shabibi, Mostafa Qorbani, Babak Rastegarimehr, Omid Safari, Zahra Shafieyan, Hamid Asayesh, Hossein Ansari, Mohammad Sadegh Abedzadeh Zavareh and Morteza Mansourian

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes is considered as the most prevalent disease due to metabolic disorders. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational on the quality of life) QOL( in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM ). Material and methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the form of a pre-test/post-test with intervention. The statistical sample of this study included 70 patients with type 2 diabetes living in the rural areas in the city of Ilam (west of Iran). The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20 via descriptive statistics, paired t-student test, independent samples t-student test, and ANOVA. Results: Except social role functioning, all aspects of QOL significantly increased after intervention (p<0.001). Regardless of age groups, gender, and educational level the QOL scores increased at follow -up (p<0.001). Conclusions: Education to patients with type 2 diabetes leads to increased means of all dimensions of QOL that reflect the effects of educational interventions on each domain.

Open access

Jaspreet Kaur, Manoj Malik, Parul Sharma, Sumedha Sangwan and S. Kulandaivelan

Abstract

Background and Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is increasing in older adults. The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of Diabetes among active young and middle age subjects and active old age subjects in Hisar district, India. Material and Methods: A total of 400 subjects were screened from Hisar district, India who were physically active then they were allocated groups based on age group A (ranging between 25-50 years) and group B (ranging between 51-75years). A Glucometer device was used to check sugar level and 6 Minute Walk Test (MWT) was used to check fitness level because a higher value obtained in 6MWT is associated with an improved fitness level. Result and conclusion: Among the 400 participants studied, 43.5% participants were pre diabetics 32.5% were diabetic and 24% were non diabetic. Therefore, this study found that almost three fourth of the total population in all age spectrums had abnormal glucose metabolism in the form of either diabetes or Pre Diabetes. The prevalence of Diabetes was more in the older patient group. The differences between the two groups for 6MWT was found to be significant.

Open access

Bogdan Timar

Open access

Holenarasipur Nagesh Santosh and Chaya David

Abstract

Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) specific to diabetic population wherein the frequency of intake of vitamin C would be examined. Material and Methods: The study is registered with Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI) with CTRI number CTRI/2016/03/006764. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 24 Hour Dietary Recall (24 DR). 50 subjects were chosen and a FFQ with 24-hour dietary recall was done. The FFQ had a list of commonly used food items. The vitamin C yield from each food item was precalculated. Result and conclusion: Strong correlations between the FFQ and 24 dietary recall were observed for all vitamin C containing food list (Pearson Correlation Coefficient r = 0.997). The p value was significant between the FFQ and 24Hour dietary recall (p = 0.028). Cross classification analysis showed uniform classification of the respondents and there was no misclassification into quartiles. This pilot study showed promising validation evidence for the use of this FFQ, which focuses vitamin C intake in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, as a screening tool in clinical and research settings.

Open access

Lea Vuletic, Marija Klaic, Stjepan Spalj and Kristina Peros

Abstract

Background and Aims: Gum chewing after a meal stimulates salivation and may affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and the release of hormones through neural mechanisms. This study was conducted to assess if chewing a sugar-free gum for 20 min following a meal, as recommended for dental caries prevention, influences the postprandial blood glucose levels in a period of one hour. Materials and Methods: For each of 18 participants blood glucose profile was made by measuring capillary glucose concentration in 10-min intervals within one hour following: a) chewing a sugar-free gum, b) the consumption of an oatmeal, c) chewing a sugar-free gum after the consumption of an oatmeal. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the glycaemic response following complex carbohydrate ingestion when a gum was chewed after a meal. Conclusions: The possible influence of gum chewing on the postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic ongoings was not reflected in the postprandial glycaemic response under the conditions of this study. A more comprehensive study which would include more variables related to vagal efferent activity, digestion and metabolism would be needed to assess if chewing sugar-free gums to exploit their caries-protective potential can influence metabolic adaptability to nutritional challenges.

Open access

Gabriela Mut-Vitcu, Iuliana-Claudia Hudrea, Svetlana Moşteoru, Laura Gaiţă and Dan Gaiţă

Abstract

Background and Aims: Recent studies have brought evidence on the connection between excess weight and suboptimal glycemic control for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and the likelihood of having suboptimal glycemic control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted on 662 patients suffering from Diabetes Mellitus and statistical analysis was performed in order obtain evidence associating BMI and poor glycaemic control. We defined as increased BMI, values >25 kg/m2 and a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value >7% reflected suboptimal glycemic control. Results: 559 (84%) patients had HbA1c >7%. 550 (83 %) patients had a BMI >25 kg/m2. In case of HbA1c >7%, a BMI >25 kg/m2 was found in a number of 457 patients (82 %), whereas a normal BMI was present in 102 (18%) patients. For the HbA1c<7% cases, the number of patients associating BMI >25 kg/m2 was 93 (90%) and a normal BMI was present in 10 (10%) patients. BMI >25 kg/m2 was not associated with a higher probability of having above-target HbA1c values compared to patients with target HbA1c (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.95), with a statistically significant p <0.05. Conclusions: The findings revealed that although in case of suboptimal glycemic control, the number of patients who had a BMI >25 kg/m2 was significantly higher than the number of patients with a BMI < 25 kg/m2, a BMI above target was not associated with greater odds of having HbA1c higher than the standard 7% level, compared to individuals with normal HbA1c levels. The results emphasize that a multitude of factors are involved in the process of achieving a targeted glycemic control and a stepped-care approach should be considered for optimum management of Diabetes Mellitus.

Open access

Decebal Popescu, Dan Andronescu and Petru Aurel Babeș

Abstract

Most studies in the past decades show that screening of Helicobacter Pylori (HP) together with monitoring the inflammatory markers, plasma glucose and HbA1c levels can help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a double interrelation between HP infection and diabetes; thus diabetic patients are more susceptible to infection with HP via multiple mechanisms (decreased cellular and humoral immunity induced by diabetes, reducing gastrointestinal motility and secretion of hydrochloric acid, impaired glucose metabolism with the advent of chemical modifications of the gastric mucosa, the last two mechanisms favoring the intestinal colonization with HP). At the same time, those infected with HP can develop diabetes. The purpose of this paper is reviewing the data from the medical literature on the role of the chronic infection with HP on the induction of type 2 diabetes. The studies presented below lead us to the conclusion that the chronic infection with HP, in addition to local specific effects (simple gastritis, peptic ulcer and malignant diseases), also has extradigestive effects. The one approached in our work is that HP is being able to induce type 2 diabetes by complex mechanisms related to insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, decreased insulin secretion, and influences on glucose and lipid absorption.

Open access

Kamal Deep Joshi, Jeevan Ramachandra Galagali and Sanajeet Kumar Singh

Abstract

Background and aims: Auditory dysfunctions in diabetes are known but are difficult to identify. Role of clinical tests and routine audiological tools are still to be established in early detection of diabetes-related auditory complication. The study aims to establish a link between diabetes and auditory dysfunction and assess the role of clinical examination and audiological investigations as a sensitive indicator of auditory dysfunctions in diabetics.

Material and Methods: The auditory functions of 100 diabetic patients and 100 non-diabetics were assessed by clinical otological examination including free-field hearing and pure tone audiometry (PTA) in this descriptive study. The data for diabetic and non-diabetic groups and effect of age on auditory functions were analyzed with suitable statistical tests using SPSS 2.0 software with an error margin of 10%.

Results: The demographical variables were comparable in both groups. The results showed a decline in free field hearing, which are furthur adversely affected by duration of diabetes and patient’s age. Overall pure tone thresholds were not significantly higher in diabetics, however the thresholds were higher in diabetics in older age groups. The hearing loss appears at an early age in diabetics but gradually becomes indistinguishable from age-related hearing loss.

Conclusions: The auditory dysfunction can be linked to diabetes. It is usually not detectable at earliest stages with routine clinical and audiological tests but the clinical tests and pure tone audiometry can have a utility in monitoring the auditory dysfunction.