This paper aims to examine how genericity is described in the Norwegian specialised literature concerning Norwegian Bokmål. Genericity is a grammatical (and to some extent semantic) phenomenon that can be expressed in different ways. In Germanic languages, including Norwegian, genericity is expressed by the use of both definite and indefinite articles, as well as bare nouns. In Norwegian, all five noun forms (namely bare noun, indefinite and definite singular forms and indefinite and definite plural forms) can be used to express a generic reference. The choice of a given noun form depends mainly on the context and the verb phrase used in a sentence. The examined materials discuss the phenomenon in a rather cursory way. Examples presented in the analysed books are mainly artificial and/or translated from the world literature on the subject. Such approach to the problem shows the lack of corpus-based research on genericity in Norwegian, which can be an interesting area to work on.
This article focuses on Joachim Lelewel’s interest in Old Norse literature as reflected in his paper on Old Norse literature delivered in 1806 and his book Edda that was published a year later. Lelewel’s Edda comprises the first Polish translation (partly as a concise retelling) of selected parts of the French translation of the Poetic Edda and the Snorra Edda as included in Paul Henri Mallet’s Monumens de la mythologie [...] published in 1756. Lelewel’s work is placed in the context of the rising interest in this literature before 1800, whereby special attention is put on the sources Lelewel resorted to, in particular Mallet’s publications and articles in the French literary magazine Magasin Encyclopedique. Comparing the Eddas in Lelewel’s and Mallet’s publications, one can, among other things, note that Lelewel (1) ignores the literary value of the dialogue form in Gylfaginning due to a narrow focus on the mythological content (2) relates the migration of the Scythians to northern Europe in his introduction which thus serves as a substitute for the missing Prologue to the Snorra Edda and (3) partly deviates from Mallet in his footnotes. Aspects (2) and (3) can also be linked back to Lelewel’s use of Magasin Encyclopedique.
In the paper land reform in South African political discourse will be investigated, especially the process of its politicization. How the topic of land reform is used by political forces, especially the ruling party; the African National Congress and current President Jacob Zuma. Does the Republic of South Africa take a populist turn on land reform or is it some kind of social justice after the suppression of the apartheid era and decades before? The political disputes and decisions will be analysed in confrontations with the fundamentals and values of a democratic state as a guarantee of property rights, private ownership and free market principles (dilemma of the problem of willing buyer - willing seller). It will be necessary to present the historical background of land problem in the RSA. The problem will be investigated in connection with the socio-economic situation of the RSA. The study will also tackle the problem of social and economic inequality from the perspective of politics. In the paper, a mix of primary and secondary research methods of data collection and analysing will be used. Theoretical framework will be based on assumptions of political discourse and the paradigm of “classic” land reform.
The bloody conflict which was taking place in South Africa in the years 1899-1902 was followed with a great interest by Polish public opinion. Its greatest part strongly sympathized with the Boer republics. Their burgers were idealized and presented by the Polish press as brave fighters for independence, who dared to stand up against the world empire to defend their rights while Great Britain was attributed full responsibility for the outbreak of the war. For many Poles the Boers personified the general idea of freedom fighters and symbolized all suppressed nations. Their sad fate seemed to be quite similar to the Polish one and this similarity was the main source of sympathy toward defenders of the Transvaal and Free Orange State. Voices of few Polish intellectuals, who called for a more objective and not so emotional view on the war, could not change the pro-Boers stance of the greatest part of Polish public opinion.
The article analyzes Tove Jansson’s Moomin novels in terms of the representations of pipe smoking. The analysis focuses on three characters from the novels: Moominpappa, Snufkin, and the Joxter. The theoretic framework of the analysis is called “the semiotics of tobacco”. In this context, tobacco is regarded as a sign of the cultural sign-system, and thus what is exactly analyzed are the cultural meanings of tobacco in the Moomin novels.
This paper is a contribution to the discussion on audiovisual translation (AVT) in cinema and broadcast media on the example of Poland and Norway seen from the perspective of viewers. It aims at establishing possible differences and similarities in the way dominant AVT modes are viewed by younger people in these two countries. In AVT studies Norway has always been classified as a subtitling country while Poland has traditionally been associated with cinema subtitling and television voice-over, of which the latter often baffles AVT scholars. Consequently, one may presume that the audiences in these two countries are likely to have fairly disparate expectations towards AVT modes used in their cinemas and broadcast media. For the purpose of this article a questionnaire has been prepared and the findings arising from the analysis of the submitted replies will be presented here.
The paper deals with the relations between Danish pronunciation and the so-called ‘normative orthography’, i.e. the official Danish writing rules as laid down by the authorities in orthographic directives since 1889. The specific aim of the paper is to suggest a model for defining and describing the different kinds of normative orthography and their mutual relations. The criteria used for placing the orthographic rules in the model are (a) whether the rule is dependent on pronunciation or not, and (b) whether the resulting orthography (i.e. the prescribed letters) are linguistic signs (inflectional endings, morphemes) or non-signs. The model thus consists of four types of normative orthography, i.e. autonomous expression orthography (Danish: autonom udtryksortografi), autonomous content orthography (Danish: autonom indholdsortografi), mirrored expression orthography (Danish: spejlet udtryksortografi) and mirrored content orthography (Danish: spejlet indholdsortografi). Among these, mirrored expression orthography constitutes the core domain, followed by mirrored content orthography, which has been a growing domain after the 1889-directives, and autonomous content orthography, which is a potentially growing domain.
The term Fr. confixe is not new and was used for the first time in 1982 but at present it is actually only used in German language linguistic literature. Confixes are morphemes of Latin and Greek origin that can form words with stems, affixes and other confixes. The article is an attempt at describing the confix øko- in the Danish language as well as its semantic and morphological properties. The status of confixes is unusual because they are actually bound morphemes with the exception that two confixes can form a word. The use of øko- shows that it is on the way to becoming a free morpheme (root), or perhaps it has become it already.