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Risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women – from the point of view of primary care gynecologist

Abstract

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent public health problem with osteoporosis-related fractures that account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention strategies and early detection of osteoporosis should be carried out in primary gynaecological care units, so as to substantially reduce the risk of fractures and allow the best treatment option for a particular woman.

Methods

From 2002 to 2011, we recruited 2956 women. Of the total number of women, we additionally extrapolated 1274 women aged 60-75 years, assumingly, the group of women at higher risk of osteoporosis. Demographic and anthropometrical data as well as the information regarding risk factors for osteoporosis were collected using a questionnaire.

Results

The odds ratio for osteoporosis increased by 8% (p=0.001) with each additional year of life. The OP prevalence increased with age from 24.9% in 60-64 years to 37.4% in 70-75 years. In non-smokers the odds ratio for osteoporosis was 0.424, which was statistically significant (p<0.05). BMI <18.5 increased the odds ratio for osteoporosis by 2 times, which was not statistically significant. In women 60-75 years old (N=1274), the risk of fractures increased with increasing age, considering previous fractures in the last 5 years (p<0.001), hip fracture (p=0.001), wrist fracture (p=0.002) and observed height loss (p<0.001). Hormone therapy (HT) use decreased the prevalence of OP by 25% in comparison with non-users.

Conclusion

Primary care gynaecologist with a DXA centre has every opportunity for a holistic approach to the management of postmenopausal women, including the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Open access
A temporal profile of pro-abstinence-oriented constructs from the modified theory of planed behavior in a Slovenian clinical sample of treated alcoholics – an 18-year follow-up

Abstract

Introduction

Using the modified Theory of Planned Behaviour (mTPB), different indicators of therapeutic success were studied to understand pro-abstinence behavioural orientation during an 18-year after-care period following a 3-month intensive alcoholism treatment. The indicators were: perceived needs satisfaction (NS), normative differential (ND), perceived alcohol utility (UT), beliefs about treatment programme benefits (BE) and behavioural intentions (BI).

Methods

The sample of 167 patients who consecutively started an intensive alcoholism treatment programme has been followed-up for 18 years, using standardised ailed instruments at the end of the treatment, and in the years 4-5, 9 and 18 of follow-up. The last data collection was completed by 32 subjects in 2010. The analysis followed the standard explore-analyse-explore approach. After the initial descriptive exploration of data, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) in SPSS statistical package was set to explore between-groups and within-groups differences over time.

Results

At the between-group level, BI remained stable at the same level as at the end of the treatment programme, whereas BE and UT robustly changed over time and levelled off after 10 years of follow-up. NS and ND show a trend of pro-abstinent orientation and level off after 10 years of follow-up, although the trend is not significant. The same results were confirmed by the within-subject level.

Conclusions

Studied constructs stabilised after ten years of follow-up, apart from BI. The latter suggests that BI level needed for completion of an intensive treatment programme suffices for the maintenance of abstinence when accompanied by the change in perception of alcohol usefulness.

Open access
Effects of Hyperbaric Exposure on the Cardiovascular System. Role of the Autonomous Nervous System

Abstract

Introduction Among experienced divers, dive adaptation is seen as a modified pattern of physiological changes. This is reflected, inter alia, in the change in cardiovascular responses, therefore there is need to examine the role of the autonomic nervous system in cardiovascular response modulation after hyperbaric exposure. Material and methods Ten experienced divers took part in the study. The effects of hyperbaric exposure at 30 and 60 meters and interaction (depth x time) were measured. Changes in HR, RRI, CI and HRV values have been taken into analysis. Results Hyperbaric exposure at 30 meters significantly affected HFnu-RRI elevation and decrease of LFnu-RRI (F = 42.92, p <0.00001), without significant affecting the HR, RRI and CI. Exposure to hyperbaric 60 m increased HR and CI (F = 7.64, p = 0.01 and F = 4.89, p = 0.04 respectively) and RRI (F = 7.69, p = 0.01), without significant impact on other variables. The influence of interaction (depth x time) was significant in all measured variables. Conclusions The results indicate that hyperbaric exposure at 60 meters affected HR, RRI, CI parameters, that were not significantly affected by hyperbaric exposure at 30 meters. On the other hand, the exposure at 30 meters showed a significant effect on the LFnu and HFnu HRV, which were not significantly affected by the exposure at 60 meters. Significant effect of time and depth interaction in each of the analyzed variables was observed.

Open access
Experimental Research Into the Effect of Hyperbaric Exposures

Abstract

Numerous research works indicate that staying in a hyperbaric environment is a stressor. We have undertaken studies using an animal model to determine the effect of hyperbaria on adrenocortical secretion and the level of adrenal ascorbic acid (a.a.a.). The research was conducted on 70 male hooded rats, which were divided into groups and subjected to hyperbaric air and oxygen at an overpressure of 1 and 3 atn, with some of the animals being additionally burdened with physical effort (swimming). It was found that short-term exposures (30 minutes) of rats to hyperbaric conditions caused a decrease in the content of a.a.a. With a prolonged (3-hour) exposure to 3 atm air the a.a.a. content returns to a normal level. A reduction in the a.a.a. content indicates the presence of stress in hyperbaric conditions in the rat, however, it does not allow to determine its intensity with the method used in the study.

Open access
Formal and Professional Requirements for the Staff of Hyperbaric Centres. Part 1

Abstract

This two-part article reviews the current legal situation of specialist staff performing hyperbaric procedures for purposes not related to diving. Numerous discrepancies between the applicable legal acts and the lack of legal regulations concerning procedures not financed from the state budget have been noted. The first significant problem consisted in the lack of a correlation between various Regulations of the Minister of Health concerning hyperbaric oxygenation, as well as inconsistencies with the programmes of medical specialisation effective in Poland. The second problem is the lack of determination requirements of medical personnel other than doctors and nurses in the documents of the Ministry of Health. It was also found that medical hyperbaric centres which do not apply for funding from the budget (National Health Fund), do not even meet the minimum requirements defined as to the qualifications of the staff working there. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge of the requirements set out in legal acts other than those concerning medicine.

Open access
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating a Poorly Healing Wound Following Cardiac Surgery in a Patient with Congenital Connective Tissue Defect – Case Report

Abstract

We hereby present the case of a female patient with recurrent aortic aneurysms. In order to treat aneurysms of the ascending aorta, aortic arch and aneurysms of the aortic arch branches, the debranching procedure was used. Following the surgery, a deep sternal wound infection occurred characterised by impaired healing. The infection was treated with targeted antibiotic therapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Open access
The Investigations on the Impact of the Oxygen Hyperbary on the Immunologic Response of the Organism

Abstract

Knowledge of the impact of hyperbaric conditions, especially hyperbaric oxygen, on human and animal organisms, is of great theoretical and practical importance, particularly in reference to the increased application of hyperbaric oxygen for therapeutic purposes. It must be said that unfortunately our knowledge on the impact of hyperbaria, including oxygen hyperbaria, on the immunological response of the animal and human organisms is still not sufficient and is incomplete. The Institute of the Naval Medicine of the Naval Academy in Gdynia has been carrying out tests in this field for some years now. The tests have been carried out on animals (rabbits, guinea pigs) as well as on humans (commercial divers, scuba divers, and candidates to these activities) within immunology investigations. The impact of hyperbaric oxygen at pressures ranging between 2.8 and 3.1 ata, in single or multiple expositions, have been tested as well as the relations between hyperbaria in air and the different conditions of the exposure.The study revealed important shifts in the immunological response of both the animals and humans.

Open access
Movement Activity Among Patients Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome

Abstract

Frequent consumption of large amounts of alcohol usually does not correspond to regular physical activity. However, regular physical activity can lead to an improved well-being and greater satisfaction with life. The aim of the study was to determine the level of physical activity in the group of patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence syndrome and examine the correlation between these variables. The study was conducted among a selected group of individuals of both sexes, aged 22-65 and undergoing treatment. Our study indicated an absence of a correlation between gender and the level of physical activity among people addicted to alcohol. Moreover, no statistically significant relationship was found between alcohol dependence and physical activity undertaken in the researched group.

Open access
The Oxidant–Antioxidant Equilibrium in the Blood of People with Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss After the First Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Session – A Preliminary Study

Abstract

The activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood plasma and erythrocytes, were determined in people subjected to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy due to sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Venous blood samples were taken immediately before entering the hyperbaric chamber and 5 min after leaving it. In the study group, two age subgroups were distinguished: group I consisting of subjects under 35 and group II consisting of subjects over 50. The obtained values were analysed statistically using Student’s t-test. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the CAT activity was shown 5 min after leaving the hyperbaric chamber in pooled subjects (p < 0.01) and group I (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the erythrocyte TBARS concentration was observed in group II (p < 0.05). It was demonstrated that a single exposure to hyperbaric oxygen affects the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium as evidenced by, e.g., a statistically significant decrease in the activity of catalase in erythrocytes. It is possible that the antioxidant response to HBO depends on the age of subjects.

Open access
Selected Gastroenterologic Problems in the Tropics (Peacekeeping Missions, Work)

Abstract

Research shows a potential threat from external environmental factors which might be the cause of upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases in tourists, or soldiers engaged in tropical peacekeeping missions. The research includes infections which due to their spread are also present in their home countries such as Helicobacter pylori infections, viral hepatitis as well as infections which might cause symptoms of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract diseases as a result of poor sanitary and unhygienic conditions. Contact with diseases typical of the tropical climate, especially during longer stays, increases the chances of bringing some tropical diseases back to Poland, which can be problematic for the domestic health care service.

Open access