Determining the value of a half-effective or half-life concentration or dose of toxicant is the main purpose of acute toxicity studies, and this is also the most commonly used value in the toxicity characteristics of substances. By conducting tests that meet the criteria and requirements for the determination of acute toxicity, due to the use of appropriate mathematical tools and concentrations resulting in complete lethal effects in the studied groups, considerably more important values can be achieved, which give a possibility for the analysis of the entire process’s dynamics, as well as determining the threshold values of the effect time and toxicant concentration. This was the purpose of our research, in which the research species were Daphnia magna and Cypris pubera. The effect of the conducted research allowed to determine and compare the two toxicants: ammonium and copper(II) ions by it’s: concentration limit values (Cth), internal toxicity of the receptor-ligand complex (α), apparent, constant disintegration of this complex (Kapp) and different time values of the effect (Tt, Tin, MLT), which, along with concentration, is equally important determinant of the development of a toxic effect.
Ngo Thi Lu, Phung Thi Thu Hang, Nguyen Huu Tuyen, Ha Thi Giang and Nguyen Thanh Hai
This article examines in detail the characteristics of Dien Bien earthquake on 19 February 2001 and its aftershocks. On the basis of the temporal development of aftershocks and the spatial distribution of tectonic faults, five aftershock series have been determined. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal evolution of these five aftershock series has clarified the development in the source zone of Dien Bien earthquake, which is closely related to the active and recent activities of tectonic faults in the area, especially Lai Chau Dien Bien fault. The comparison between characteristics of aftershock activities of Dien Bien earthquake and geomorphological features as well as tectonic activities in the area has indicated that the magnitude of these aftershocks and their temporal evolution (early or late) depend not only on the closer or further distance compared to the mainshock and the active faults that cause them but also on terrain elevation, slope index, lineament density and their positions relative to other tectonic faults in the studied area.
The paper presents the results of the spread of the tetrahydrothiophene (THT) - used as odourant - in the gas network. Such analyses allow quick detection of leaks in networks, systems and devices of gas supply directly to consumers. The main goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the use of portable chromatograph and comparing it with a stationary odourant concentration analyser. Based on these studies, an attempt to determine the odouration zone for the selected city have been also taken. For this purpose, three series of measurements were made - in each series 13 points were analysed. Obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the measurement a concentration of odourant in the gas network using a portable gas chromatograph - difference in relation to the stationary chromatograph ranged from 1.91 to 2.55 %.
Larona Keabetswe, Guang Cheng Shao, Jintao Cui, Jia Lu and Tebogo Stimela
Quality of fresh produce is the most critical issue in the economics of a vegetable enterprise. In order to investigate the effect of biochar amendment and deficit irrigation on tomato fruit quality, experimental research was conducted under a rain shelter in southern China during the 2017 and 2018 growing seasons. The experiment consisted of five treatments. Crops were irrigated to 100% of field water capacity at all growth stages as treatments T1 and T2. The other treatments received 30% less irrigation water than T2 when its soil water content reached 70% of field capacity, and were designated as treatments T3, T4 and T5, applied at the vegetative (stage I), flowering and fruit development (stage II), and fruit ripening (stage III) stages, respectively. Treatment T1 included no biochar, while the other treatments included 10% biochar by weight. The results showed that the total soluble solids (TSS) content, sugar-to-acid ratio (SAR), vitamin C (VC) content, and colour index (CI) increased in the deficit irrigation treatments depending on the phenological stage, the fruit ripening stage in particular. Meanwhile, single fruit weight was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by water deficit at stages II and III, subsequently affecting the total fruit yield. Biochar improved soil moisture conservation and had a positive effect on fruit quality as evidenced by better single quality attributes (p < 0.05) of T2 over T1. The GRA and TOPSIS appraisal methods were used to conduct the comprehensive quality analysis. Eventually, treatment T5 ranked the best in both seasons, and this was also confirmed by the combinational evaluation method.
Cristina Ariza-Carricondo, Francesca Di Mauro, Maarten Op de Beeck, Marilyn Roland, Bert Gielen, Domenico Vitale, Reinhart Ceulemans and Dario Papale
The agreement of Leaf Area Index (LAI) assessments from three indirect methods, i.e. the LAI–2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer, the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System and Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) was evaluated for four canopy types, i.e. a short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) with poplar, a Scots pine stand, a Pedunculate oak stand and a maize field. In the SRC and in the maize field, the indirect measurements were compared with direct measurements (litter fall and harvesting). In the low LAI range (0 to 2) the discrepancies of the SS1 were partly explained by the inability to properly account for clumping and the uncertainty of the ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution parameter. The higher values for SS1 in the medium (2 to 6) to high (6 to 8) ranges might be explained by gap fraction saturation for LAI–2200 and DHP above certain values. Wood area index –understood as the woody light-blocking elements from the canopy with respect to diameter growth– accounted for overestimation by all indirect methods when compared to direct methods in the SRC. The inter-comparison of the three indirect methods in the four canopy types showed a general agreement for all methods in the medium LAI range (2 to 6). LAI–2200 and DHP revealed the best agreement among the indirect methods along the entire range of LAI (0 to 8) in all canopy types. SS1 showed some discrepancies with the LAI–2200 and DHP at low (0 to 2) and high ranges of LAI (6 to 8).
Air quality is an issue of general, global interest, which requires the implementation of appropriate environmental policies, taking into account the essential connection between the world economy and the environment. Air is an important natural element of the environment, vital for human life and health, as well as for fauna and flora, and it needs to be protected by all means, including legal methods.
Lately, scientific studies and researches have shown that the chemical structure of the atmosphere is changing for natural or anthropogenic causes, which requires more effective monitoring of the impact of human activity on the atmosphere, doubled by the implementation of radical measures, including legal ones, meant to insure the protection of this environmental element.
The increase in the quantity of polluting gases eliminated into the atmosphere causes global warming, destroying the ozone layer and generating other imbalances in the natural environment.
In these conditions, and since pollution knows no political-administrative borders, being a global phenomenon, there is an absolute need for international cooperation based on conventions and treatises on this topic, or directives from international bodies and organisations, and at a national level, the environmental legislation must aim to protect the air in the troposphere as well as the other elements outside the troposphere, such as the ozone layer, which is part of the stratosphere.
Weixing Li, Zhichong He, Shunbo Yang, Yunling Ye, Huiru Jiang and Li Wang
To gain insights into the regulatory networks of miRNAs related to golden colour formation in Ginkgo biloba leaves, we constructed an sRNA library of golden-green striped mutant leaves. A total of 213 known miRNAs comprising 54 miRNA families were obtained, and 214 novel miRNAs were identified in the mutant leaves. We further constructed a normal green leaf sRNA library as a control and compared the expression of miRNAs between mutant and normal leaves. We found 42 known and 54 novel differential expression candidate miRNAs; 39 were up-regulated and 57 down-regulated in mutants compared to normal leaves. Our transcriptome analysis and annotation of the predicted targets indicated that the potential roles of miRNAs in G. biloba leaves included involvement in the ‘Glutathione metabolism’, ‘Plant circadian rhythm’, and ‘Phenylalanine metabolism’ categories. miRNAs and their targets were further validated by qRT-PCR. The expression of miR159a and miR159c, in particular, was significantly higher in mutant leaves than in normal leaves, while their potential target gene CLT3, which is associated with chloroplast development, displayed the opposite expression pattern. In addition, the expression of miR396g-3p and miR396h was also significantly higher in mutant leaves than in normal leaves, while the target genes ABP1 (auxin-related gene) and PPR32 (chloroplast RNA editing protein), respectively, showed the opposite expression pattern. Combined with the transcriptome analysis, these data suggest that miR159, miR396, and their targets may participate in chloroplast development and hormone metabolism to regulate colour formation in G. biloba leaves.
Jana Júdová, Radoslava Kanianska, Jana JaĎuĎová, Miriam Kizeková and Jarmila Makovníková
Land use changes are local phenomena with global impact. They have an impact in a cumulative sense on biodiversity or soil degradation. This study aimed to examine the effects of different land-uses (arable land, permanent grasslands, abandoned grasslands, forest land) on the selected biotic and abiotic soil parameters in the Slovak mountain study sites Liptovská Teplička and Tajov. Biotic (microbial community structure, earthworm number and fresh body biomass, arthropod number and fresh body biomass), and abiotic chemical soil parameters (pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, nutrients) were measured. According to MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight), several bacterial strains were identified. Mutual relations between soil microorganisms and soil biotic and abiotic properties determined by different land uses were analysed. Microbial response expressed as average well-colour development (AWCD) values indicated relations between higher microbial diversity and higher nutrient availability at both study sites. In the comparison of land use types, permanent grasslands (PG) showed the lowest microbial activity in the depth of 0–0.1 m. But in the depth of 0.2-0.3 m in PG of both study sites, the higher microbial activity was recorded compared to the depth of 0-0.1 m. In addition, lower AWCD values in PG were in line with the lower available P and K content but higher earthworm density and biomass.
Ivan Korshikov, Yulia Belonozhko and Helena Lapteva
In this study, we compare the pathological mitosis rates, chromosomal abnormalities and nucleolar organizer activity in Pinus pallasiana D. Don seedlings from natural population in the Crimean Mountains and from the urban plantations in the steppe of Ukraine. On the stages of anaphase and telophase of mitosis, such chromosomal abnormalities as bridges were most often found in the seeds of plantations exposed to air pollutants, whereas lead and agglutination of chromosomes were found in seeds from iron ore dump stands. Our studies have shown that P. pallasiana can be used for genotoxic monitoring of technogenic polluted lands.
Faecal samples were collected from 224 dogs (47 villages) in Ankara. Toxocara spp. eggs were diagnosed in faeces using centrifugal flotation and sedimentation methods. A total of 21 dogs (9.38 %) were positive for Toxocara spp. eggs. In this study, we used the PCR technique that, in combination with DNA sequencing, allows the detection and identification of T.canis eggs in faeces of infected dogs. For this purpose, the ATPase subunit-6 gene (mtDNA) was selected as a target for the amplification T. canis. The primers were used to amplify 217 bp region. Amongst 21 coproscopically detected Toxocara isolates from dogs, 5 (23.8 %) samples were PCR-positive for T. canis, and the remaining 16 samples were PCR-negative. Results indicate that PCR can detect Toxocara canis DNA in faeces of infected dogs, but efficacy was low when compare to sedimentation/flotation. PCR is additional test for diagnosing of this infection. But, the difficulties of identification based on PCR in faecal examinations need to be investigated further.