Michal Kumstát, Tomáš Hlinský, Ivan Struhár and Andy Thomas
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (SB) and sodium citrate (SC) on 400 m high-intensity swimming performance and blood responses. Six nationally ranked male swimmers (20.7 ± 2.1 yrs; 184 ± 6 cm; 79.9 ± 3.9 kg; 10.6 ± 1% body fat) participated in a double blinded, placebo controlled crossover trial. Ninety minutes after consuming SB (0.3 g·kg-1), SC (0.3 g·kg-1) or a placebo (PL) participants completed a single 400-m freestyle maximal test on three consecutive days. The order of the supplementation was randomized. Capillary blood samples were collected on 4 occasions: at rest (baseline), 60 min post-ingestion, immediately post-trial and 15 min post-trial. Blood pH, HCO3- concentration and base excess (BE) were determined. Blood pH, HCO3-, BE were significantly elevated from before loading to the pre-test (60 min post-ingestion) (p < 0.05) after SB ingestion, but not after SC ingestion (p > 0.05). Performance times were improved by 0.6% (p > 0.05) after supplementation of SB over PL in 5 out of 6 participants (responders). In contrast, ingestion of SC decreased performance by 0.2% (p > 0.05). No side effects were observed in either trial. Delayed blood response was observed after SC ingestion compared to SB and this provided no or modest ergogenic effect, respectively, for single bout high-intensity swimming exercise. Monitoring the magnitude of the time-to-peak level rise in alkalosis may be recommended in order to individualize the loading time accordingly before commencement of exercise.
Petr Kutáč and Jaroslav Uchytil
The objective of the study was to assess differences between the take-off and non-take-off limbs of athletes in track-and-field jumping events based on a segmental analysis of body composition as well as kinetic analysis. The research included 19 participants (10 males, 9 females) with an average age of 18.1 ± 2.8 years. We measured body height, body mass, body composition (body fat, fat free mass, bone mineral content and bone density) and segmental distribution of these variables. To assess strength of the lower limbs, we performed reaction force analysis during take-off and run symmetry. The difference in the representation of soft tissues between the take-off and non-take-off limbs was not significant; the differences were 0.06%, 0 kg in body fat and 0.01 kg in fat free mass. The differences in the values of bone matter were significant. The bone mineral content was 0.05 kg higher in the take-off limb (p < 0.001), and bone density was 0.07 g/cm2 higher (p < 0.001); the practical significance of the difference was intermediate (d = 0.5). Kinetic analysis showed that athletes exerted greater force on the pad with the take-off limb than the non-take-off limb when taking off while using arms in the first peak of the vertical force. The difference determined in this type of take-off was statistically significant (p < 0.05); the practical significance of the difference was medium (d = 0.7). The difference in the second peak of the vertical reaction force in the take-off arm was not statistically significant. The differences were reflected in the different bone matter compositions.
The aim of the study was to present the relationships between the way of perceiving oneself and the world by young athletes, the cognitive anxiety and the ways of coping with stress. The target group consisted of 222 participants (114 boys and 108 girls) aged 16–20, students of sports-profiled secondary schools. The participants specialised in both winter and summer sports, as well as in individual and team sport disciplines. The following tools were implemented: Attitudes to Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and to the World Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Sport Anxiety Scale. The study showed that negative perception of oneself and others increases the level of cognitive anxiety and decreases the tendencies to search for social contacts in the face of stress. With regard to the positive image of oneself and others, the opposite was observed. The above relationships refer mainly to girls who practise sports.
Tin Lok Lai, Cheuk Wan Yim, Man Chi Leung, Pui Yan Wong and Woon Leung Ng
The primary objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The secondary objective was to evaluate the prevalence of various PsA comorbidities and their associated factors, with particular emphasis on metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Consecutive patients fulfilling the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) from two local hospitals were recruited between June 2016 and January 2018. Demographic data and related clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation criteria for Asians.
For the study, 201 eligible PsA patients were recruited: 124 were men and 77 were women. The mean age of onset of PsO and PsA was 36.6 ± 14.2 and 44.5 ± 12.6 respectively. Of the patients, 64.2% had central obesity, 18.4% had diabetes, 32.8% had hypertension and 35.8% had MetS.
Univariate analysis showed that the (1) age onset of PsA, (2) PsA duration, (3) PsO duration, and (4) tender joint-count were the potential associative factors of MetS. Subsequent regression model identified that both age onset and disease duration of PsA were significantly associated with MetS, with p-values of 0.02 and 0.018, respectively. Older age of onset (46.5 ± 12.2 vs 43.4 ± 12.7 years) or longer disease duration (9.8 ± 8.4 vs 7.0 ± 6.7 years) of PsA increased the likelihood of developing MetS.
No association of MetS was found with ESR or CRP levels, PASI, dactylitis count, enthesitis index, tender and swollen joint count, age onset of PsO and severe skin status.
PsA is a heterogeneous disease with an extremely diverse range of clinical features. It is also notably associated with other comorbidities, especially metabolic syndrome, in which it is closely related to arthritis onset and duration. In view of their common prevalence, regular screening of these PsA-related comorbidities is highly recommended.
Alexandra Yan Hoi Ng and Kam Hung Ng
The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) has developed the concept of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) in 2009. The symptoms and burden of disease of nonradiographic axial SpA and Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) are similar and both can affect multiple organs and systems. Assessment and monitoring in SpA are, therefore, crucial. Different instruments have been developed for assessing and monitoring the wide variety of presentations in SpA. Generally, disease monitoring of patients can include patient reported outcome, clinical findings, laboratory tests, imaging, and disease activity composite scores.
Ho So, Victor Tak Lung Wong, Hin Ting Pang, Virginia Wen Nga Lao and Ronald Man Lung Yip
We report a male patient who had refractory idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) presented with antisynthetase syndrome, being treated by potent immunosuppressants for years, developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Despite the stepping down of the immunosuppressives and active lymphoma therapy, the patient died. On top of the typical association of IIM and malignancy, rare EBV-associated tumors related to EBV infection secondary to the use of potent immunosuppressive therapies could occur. Further investigations are advisable if there are new symptoms and signs or in refractory IIM cases. This report serves as a diagnostic alert that the causation by EBV infection in unusual tumors found in patients with IIM should be considered, as both the treatment and prognosis may differ. A balance between the risks and benefits of immunosuppressive therapies should always be achieved.
Rūtenis Paulauskas, Nerijus Masiulis, Alejandro Vaquera, Bruno Figueira and Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the game-related statistics that discriminated between Euroleague basketball players and European basketball players playing in the NBA, when competing in the same event (EuroBasket 2015). There was a total of 78 matches played by 24 teams in two groups of analysis: NBA, participants in the European Championship who played in the NBA season of 2014-2015 (n = 26); Euroleague, participants in the European Championship who played in the Euroleague season of 2014-2015 (n = 82). The players’ performance variables were normalized to the time they spent on the court. To identify which variables best discriminated between the NBA and the Euroleague performance profiles, a descriptive discriminant analysis was conducted. Structure coefficients (SC) from the matrix greater than |0.30| were interpreted as meaningful contributors to discriminating between the groups. The results revealed a significant function (p = 0.008, canonical correlation of 0.51, Λ = 0.74, reclassification = 84.2%) and substantial performance differences in game-related statistics much related to the influence of body size (body height and mass), such as two-point field goals made (SC = 0.42) and missed (SC = 0.40), free-throws made (SC = 0.55), defensive rebounds (SC = 0.62), blocks (SC = 0.48) and suffered fouls (SC = 0.34). No differences were found at the level of game-related statistics indirectly related to perception, such as assists, turnovers or steals. Also, the greater body size in NBA players was likely related to higher variability in performance, thus, being an important topic for coaches and recruiters to analyse.