The Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) query language allows users to issue a structural query over a resource description framework (RDF) graph. However, the lack of a spatiotemporal query language limits the usage of RDF data in spatiotemporal-oriented applications. As the spatiotemporal information continuously increases in RDF data, it is necessary to design an effective and efficient spatiotemporal RDF data management system. In this paper, we formally define the spatiotemporal information-integrated RDF data, introduce a spatiotemporal query language that extends the SPARQL language with spatiotemporal assertions to query spatiotemporal information-integrated RDF data, and design a novel index and the corresponding query algorithm. The experimental results on a large, real RDF graph integrating spatial and temporal information (> 180 million triples) confirm the superiority of our approach. In contrast to its competitors, gst-store outperforms by more than 20%-30% in most cases.
The increasing recognition of the importance of information security has created institutional pressures on organizations to comply with information security standards and policies for protecting their information. How such pressures influence information security compliance in organisations, however, is unclear. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of institutional pressures on information security compliance in organizations. With the use of structural equation modelling for analysing the data collected through an online survey, the study shows that coercive pressures, normative pressures, and mimetic pressures positively influence information security compliance in organizations. It reveals that the benefits of information security compliance motivate management to strengthen their commitments at information security compliance. Furthermore, the study finds out that social pressures do not have a significant impact on management commitments towards information security compliance. Theoretically this study contributes to the information security research by better understanding how institutional pressures can be used for enhancing information security compliance in organizations. Practically this study informs information security policy makers of the major institutional drivers for information security compliance.
The central bank’s action on bank liquidity implies the action on the amount of currency issued by the central bank that banks can acquire in their mutual relationships, and on its price, which is the action on the interest rate.
In order to respond to banks’ treasury needs, the central bank acts on the money market through restrictions on refinancing options and handling reserve requirements.
The paper aims to investigate the extent to which the NBR’s money tool system influences the mass and quality of credit granted by banks in the Romanian banking system. The monetary policy strategy adopted by the NBR had a strong influence on the macroeconomic variables of Romania
The European Commission, through the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development has found that investment projects is the main way of undermining the EU’s financial interests regarding Rural Development, where three types of fraud can be found: 1. Ordinary Fraud (using funding for purposes other than those for which it was granted); 2. Rigged Procurement Procedures (e.g.: acquisition of second-hand equipment instead of new/complacency offers/manufactured/falsified and inflated offers); 3. Creation of artificial conditions for obtaining financing. Identifying and punishing them has become a priority for the Payment Authorities of the Member States of the European Union.
Nowadays the concerns for communication analysis are highlighting its complexity. If for the regular people, communication means essentially to transmit information mostly using words, for the communication science specialists, it got a different meaning. Regardless of the meaning given to the term, everything gravitates around information and managing the interest. These two terms define the content of communication. The reasons, purposes, meanings are mostly different, depending on the actors involved in the message exchange. In order to not wander in this definitions universe, we will note only one: “Broadly, communication is the process of issuing a message and send it in a coded manner with the help of a communication channel to a recipient for reception” [Burcin, Octavian, 2009].
This definition was chosen, starting from the fact that all definitions for communication have at least a series of mutual elements, from which we note: communication is the process of transmitting information, ideas, opinions, reviews, either from one individual to another, or from a group to another; communication is an attribute of the human being; no kind of activities, from the common daily activities to the complex activities developed at collectivities level, cannot be conceived outside the communication process.
Through this analysis I wanted to emphasize the differences but also the similarities between the two countries with different management systems, in terms of geopolitical, social, technological and economic. In this analysis we found that the two systems have common point in sports management, but also points that they should priority in the next stage in the development of sport.
The work “Comparative analysis of consulting services in five European countries” intends to offer a general picture of consulting services from five European countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Finland and Romania), through comparative analysis of the indicators presented in FEACO studies: increasing rate of turnover of the consulting market, export level, the evolution of the number of consultant, the evolution of the fees of the consultant, types of consulting services, main field where the clients that request consulting services come from.
The main motivation of this research consisted of understanding the reasons for which the transformations that occurred on the consulting market are perceived differently by each of the countries that were analysed.
A first step in the process of understanding the management consultancy is represented by defining it, first according to the vision of well-known authors, experienced consultants and secondly, according to the vision of profession organism on international and local level. In order to understand the way consultancy evolved in time it is necessary to present a short history with focus on the moments that led to the transformations which we have nowadays in this industry. The last part of the work was dedicated to the comparative analysis of the consultancy markets in the five countries. The novelty degree of the work is represented by the fact that all the strong points identified in the case of the four countries (Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Finland) will constitute possible development directions for the Romanian consulting market.
Managerial communication assumes the analyses of the managers’ communicational behaviour, which has as aim fulfilling of tasks and organizational objectives, by working with people. A major objective is: to develop and share the necessary knowledge for growing managerial efficiency - (Smeltzer, 1996). As some of the specialists have noticed, (Smeltzer 1983), The management sees communication as tool for achieving the aim, something that is needs to be used in relation with the objectives organization has, taking in consideration the issues related with the analysis of costs and benefits. Various studies have searched to look into this domain within the frames of social responsibility, which does not ignore the responsibility to have respect for the people as well as for the planet. Managers are people which have responsibilities for taking decisions, for the organization as well as for their subsidiaries (Hill, 2003). Those people are spending a large part of their time interacting with various types of public, with the structuring of the problems which appear on the various processes, as well as with the establishing of the strategic and main financial decisions and company objectives. The company success assumes the development, motivation and in the very end keeping close well performing employees. It is also necessary that managers are keeping themselves extremely connected to the informational sources in order to be able to react as soon as possible and eventually adjust the objectives and the strategy (Suchan 2006).
In our complex society, based on knowledge, is important the introduction and development in formal and informal training of transversal competences especially entrepreneurship, to provide competences, knowledge and attitudes which are essential for the development of an entrepreneurial culture in Europe. Starting from this premise, although some countries have already committed to encourage entrepreneurial education for more than a decade, others are just starting.
The present article focuses on identifying the impact that entrepreneurial development has both in Romania and in the EU countries, and the results shown that the measures taken follow the reaching of Target Europa 2020. The paper presents the social context regarding the introduction of entrepreneurship in initial training and in non-formal training, the causes, the actors involved and the measures taken by the EU Member States regarding this phenomenon. The conclusion of the study show that entrepreneurial education in initial training represents a complex task, as more than three quarters of the countries/regions of Europe give autonomy to training institutions regarding the curricular aspects or have no regulations/recommendation at all regarding entrepreneurial education during initial training.