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Open access

Ratih Kurniasari, Muhammad Sulchan, Diana Nur Afifah, Gemala Anjani and Ninik Rustanti

Abstract

Background and Aims: Atherosclerosis has become a prominent health problem in Indonesia. Based on food as medicine concept, tempe gembus (a fermented food from Indonesia) is well known having the content of nutrient that influences atherosclerosis parameter. Research aimed to prove the influence of different variation of tempe gembus that was given without additional treatment (X1), with the steam blanching heating (X2), and was added the bromelain enzyme (X3) to the level of serum Homocysteine (Hcy) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of rat’s blood that was given the atherogenic diet.

Material and Methods: The research of posttest randomized controlled group design on 35 Sprague dawley rats were divided into two main groups as follow; they were 2 control groups (called K− and K+) and 3 treatment groups. All of the treatment groups were given tempe gembus of 25 gram/kg rat body weight.

Results: The results showed that group variation of tempe gembus had a lower mean of Hcy and MDA levels than disease group (K+). However, a significant effect of tempe gembus was only decrease in MDA level (ANOVA test p = 0.001). Treatment X1 and X3 had meaningful differences to decrease MDA levels.

Conclusion: Tempe gembus variation can decrease the MDA level significantly and decrease the Hcy level however, without statistical significance.

Open access

Akshatha Shetty, Rahul Bhandary, Biju Thomas, Suchetha Kumari and Amitha Ramesh

Abstract

Background and Aims: Pre and post-operative nutritional status are not often tested on a consistent basis when patients are analyzed and diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) or have chronic periodontitis. Thus, this study pursues to evaluate the predictive value of serum vitamin C and lead levels in this population at baseline and after periodontal treatment.

Materials and Methods: In an interventional study setting we enrolled 120 subjects which were later categorized into four sub-groups: set 1 – individuals with chronic periodontitis, set 2 – individuals with T2DM, set 3 – individuals with T2DM and chronic periodontitis respectively set 4 - healthy individuals as control group. Scaling and root planing was performed only to individuals with periodontitis and T2DM. At baseline and 21 days after periodontitis treatment blood was obtained from the subjects and analysis of serum vitamin C and serum lead was done and data obtained was statisticaly analysed.

Results: ANOVA test showed baseline values of both the parameters to be statistically significant different between groups and within groups (p<0.001). Alteration was seen in the parameters postoperatively regarding serum vitamin C was increased and lead level decreased; paired t-test showed statistically significant difference (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Serum Vitamin C can be considered a key biomarker. Increased lead level can be a risk factor for commencement and progression of T2DM and chronic periodontitis.

Open access

Oana Albai, Bogdan Timar, Deiana Roman and Romulus Timar

Abstract

Background and aims Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patients with DM and CKD have a 10 or even 20 times higher cardiovascular risk (CVR) than the general population. Lipid metabolism disorders are more frequent in these patients, dyslipidemia being aggravated by the presence of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The main purpose of our study was to identify possible correlations between lipid profile parameters and altered renal function in patients with DM. We have also analyzed the correlations between lipid parameters, CKD, quality of glycemic control and CVR.

Material and method: The study was performed on 2732 patients with DM which received medical treatment and care at the Center for Diabetes Timisoara, for a 6-month period from March to October 2016, 1508 women (55.2%) and 1224 men (44.8%), mean age 63.7 ± 9.1 (33-78) years and mean diabetes duration 12.4 ± 6.8 (6-33) years. The study group included 312 patients (11.4%) with T1DM and 2420 patients (88.6%) with T2DM.

Results: The prevalence of CKD (GFR< 60 ml/min) was 12.5%. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and LDLc were significantly higher in the case of patients with DM and CKD (p<0.0001). Patients with CKD had twice the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease when compared to patients without CKD. Peripheral artery disease was present in 16.9% of those with CKD and in 11% of those without CKD. Hypertension (HTN) was present in 91.8% of patients with CKD and in 67.1% of patients without CKD (GFR > 60 ml/min).

Conclusion: Analyzed data showed a strong correlation between CKD, dyslipidemia and CVR in patients with DM. Impaired renal function was strongly correlated with age, duration of DM and weight status of these patients.

Open access

Amin Abdollahzade Fard, Peiman Abbasnezhad, Khadijeh Makhdomi, Morteza Salehi, Hamid Reza Karamdel and Ehsan Saboory

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the causes of end-stage renal disease, so that about 70% of all diabetic patients have nephropathy. Prolactin is a hormone that is affected by diabetes but the interaction between diabetes and prolactin has not been understood properly. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between changes in serum prolactin levels in diabetic patients with renal failure.

Material and methods: In this study 223 individuals were participated and after assessment of inclusion/exclusion criteria 189 individuals were evaluated. Finally, the individuals were divided into three groups: Control (C), Diabetic (D), and Diabetic Nephropathy (DN). Blood samples were collected between 8.00 a.m. and 12.00 a.m. for measurement of prolactin levels and biochemical analysis.

Results: The results showed that sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine and prolactin significantly increased in DN group compared to control individuals (P< 0.001). The prolactin levels were significantly decreased in the group of patients with diabetes (P< 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that serum prolactin level decreased in diabetes while it increased in diabetic nephropathy.

Open access

Raminderjit Kaur, Manpreet Kaur, Rohit Kapoor and Jatinder Singh

Abstract

Background and Aims: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of various CVD risk factors comprised of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The present study was aimed to assess the prevalence of MS in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and to evaluate the clinical significance of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in these patients.

Methods: The sample comprised of 251 T2DM patients. MS was evaluated in all the studied subjects according to NCEP-ATP III, IDF and JIS criteria. The subjects were screened for demographic as well as clinical characteristics.

Results: Prevalence of MS was estimated to be 65%, 69% and 75% according NCEP-ATP-III, IDF and JIS criteria respectively. JIS criteria was only preceded for further analysis as it explained the highest prevalence and also showed the better level of agreement (0.862) with IDF criteria. Abdominal obesity was the most frequent component of MS in the studied subjects. Moreover, 20.21% of MS subjects were found to have very high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) / future mortality according to different combinations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle brachial index (ABI).

Conclusions: The study revealed an increased prevalence of MS in the studied subjects. Risk of CVD may be better explained when these subjects were segregated according to different combinations of baPWV and ABI.

Open access

Nahla Al-Bayyari, Nesreen Saadeh, Raed Hailat and Safaa Al-Zeidaneen

Abstract

Background and aims: Atorvastatin is a member of the drug class known as statins, which used as a lipid-lowering agent. The study aim was to assess the effect of atorvastatin on body weight and blood glucose levels among diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Material and Methods: A 359 hyperlipidemic Jordanian patients using atorvastatin at least for 1 year were divided into two groups: diabetic (DM) and non-diabetic (NDM). The changes in lipid profile, thyroid function test, blood glucose indices as well as body weight were assessed and compared between both groups.

Results: There was no statistical significant (p > 0.05) difference between means of body weight after treatment among DM (85.74 ± 3.56) and NDM (81.75 ± 1.25) groups. Descriptive statistics and mean comparisons before and after atorvastatin treatment, showed statistical significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences in body weight and total cholesterol among NDM group and in total cholesterol and LDL-Ch among DM group. There was an increase in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and a decrease in triglycerides among both groups but the difference was not statistically (p > 0.05) significant.

Conclusions: Atorvastatin may increase body weight, fasting blood glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

Open access

Hasmar Fajriana, Arta Farmawati and Lily Arsanti Lestari

Abstract

Background and Aims: Oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs due to an increase in free radicals and decreased antioxidant defenses including superoxide dismutase (SOD). It causes the occurrence of lipid peroxidation as indicated by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA). Healthy foods that are rich in antioxidants are needed to reduce oxidative stress, such as eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Until now there is no scientific evidence about the effects of purple eggplant against oxidative stress in hyperglycemia. The aim of this study is to determine the antioxidant effect of eggplant flour (TTU) against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats by induced Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin (NA-STZ).

Materials and Method: This experimental study was designed using posttest only. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 10-12 weeks, body weight (bw) 207.25±26.76 grams were divided randomly into 5 groups, namely 2 control groups (normal and hyperglycemic) and 3 groups of treatment. Hyperglycemic rats were induced by NA-STZ (230-65 mg/kg bw). Administration of TTU through feed for 28 days varied with dose of 2.36 grams, 4.71 grams, and 7.07 grams in groups P1, 2, and 3, respectively. Examinations of blood glucose levels were conducted before intervention, whereas the antioxidant activity of SOD and MDA plasma levels were examined after intervention.

Results: The antioxidant activity of SOD in groups which were given TTU was higher than the hyperglycemic rats (31.19±1.98%), but lower than the normal group (220.83±23.68%) Levels of plasma MDA in groups which were given TTU were lower than the hyperglycemic rats (220.47±5.24 nmol/L), but higher than the normal group (1.55±0.20 nmol/L). The antioxidant activity of SOD in the P3 group (69.29±3.82%) was higher than the P1 group (41.84±3.82%) and the P2 group (55.10±3.23%), while the levels of plasma MDA in the P3 group (1.89±0.17 nmol/L) was lower than the P1 group (3.79±0.24 nmol/L) and the P2 group (3.17±0.53 nmol/L).

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that administration of TTU significantly prevents oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats.

Open access

Rucsandra Dănciulescu Miulescu and Andrada Doina Mihai

Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a pathologic condition generated by the thyroid hormone deficiency. The American Thyroid Association advises for the screening of hypothyroidism beginning at 35 years and thereafter every 5 years in people at high risk for this condition: females older than 60 years, pregnant women, patients with other autoimmune disease or patients with a history of neck irradiation. In pregnant women, hypothyroidism can been associated with adverse effect for both mother and child. The „Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum“ recommends the treatment of maternal overt hypothyroidism: females with a thyrotropin (TSH) level higher than the trimester-specific reference interval and decreased free thyroxine (FT4), and females for which TSH level is higher than 10.0 mIU/L, irrespective of the FT4 value, with administration of oral levothyroxine. The goal of treatment of maternal overt hypothyroidism is to bring back the serum TSH values to the reference range specific for the pregnancy trimester. The Guidelines of the „European Thyroid Association for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children“ recommends treatment of pregnancy associated subclinical hypothyroidism with the following levothyroxine doses: „1.20 μg/kg/day for TSH≤4.2 mU/l, 1.42 μg/kg/day for TSH >4.2-10 and 2.33 μg/kg/day for overt hypothyroidism“. The „Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum“ and the „European Thyroid Association for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy and in Children“ do not recommend the treatment of isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy.

Open access

Farzaneh Momeniarbat, Javad Karimi, Nosrolah Erfani and Javad Kiani

Abstract

Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify the role of neuroticism and psychological flexibility (PF) in quality of life (QOL) and chronic fatigue (CF) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: We considered the all of the patients with T2DM over aged 30 years and living in the province of Hamadan, Iran in 2014 that were referred to the Hamadan Diabetes Center. A sample size of 170 patients was selected by the simple random sampling method. The measuring tools were completed by the patients. To test assumptions, the Pearson correlation and structural equation modeling were used. Results: The results showed that the correlation coefficient between neuroticism, with CF (r=0.579; p<0.001) and QOL (r=-0.242; p<0.001), and also correlation between PF and CF (r=0.287; p<0.001) are significant. There is no significant relationship between QOL and PF (r= -0.098; p=0.203). Structural equation modeling showed that neuroticism has a direct positive effect in CF (p<0.001) and a negative effect on QOL (p<0.001), and the PF has a significant direct effect on CF (p=0.014) and an indirect effect on QOL. The CF affects negatively on the QOL (p<0.001). Conclusion: It could be concluded that neuroticism and PF play important roles in QOL and CF and with effective intervention can help patients with diabetes to improve them QOL.

Open access

Tiberius Mogoş, Carmen Dondoi and Andra Evelin Iacobini

Abstract

Dietary fibers are a type of carbohydrates that are found in plant-based foods. They are not absorbed or digested by the body, but play an important role in maintaining good health. There are two types of dietary fiber - soluble and insoluble. Most foods contain both types, but are usually richer in one type than the other. Current evidence suggests that high-fiber diets, especially of the soluble variety, may offer some improvement in weight management, in carbohydrate metabolism, lower total and LDL cholesterol, and have other positive effects in patients diagnosed with diabetes (improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, improvement of various metabolic and inflammatory markers associated with the metabolic syndrome), thus reducing the risk of cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of our review is to reinforce the role of dietary fiber in the improvement of diabetes management