Browse

91 - 100 of 245 items :

Clear All
Genetic testing for choroideremia

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for choroideremia (CHM). CHM is an inherited X-linked recessive disorder associated with variations in the CHM gene. The overall prevalence of CHM varies from 1 in 50 000 to 1 in 100 000. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, visual field, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for color vision deficiency

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for color vision deficiency (CVD). Deuteranopia affects 1 in 12 males and is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. It is associated with variations in the OPN1LW (OMIM gene: 300822; OMIM disease: 303900) and OPN1MW (OMIM gene: 300821; OMIM disease: 303800) genes. Tritanopia has a prevalence of 1 in 10 000, is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and is related to variations in the OPN1SW (OMIM gene: 613522; OMIM disease: 190900) gene. Blue cone monochromatism has a prevalence of 1 in 100 000, is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner and is related to mutations in the OPN1LW (OMIM gene: 300822; OMIM disease: 303700) and OPN1MW (OMIM gene: 300821; OMIM disease: 303700) genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmogical examination, family history, electroretingraphy, color vision testing and dark adaptometry. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for cone rod dystrophies

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for cone rod dystrophies (CORDs). CORDs are caused by variations in the ABCA4, ADAM9, AIPL1, C8orf37, CACNA1F, CACNA2D4, CDHR1, CNGA3, CRX, DRAM2, GUCA1A, GUCY2D, HRG4, KCNV2, PDE6C, PITPNM3, POC1B, PROM1, PRPH2, RAB28, RAX2, RIMS1, RPGRIP1, RPGR SEMA4A, TTLL5 genes, with an overall prevalence of 1 per 40 000. Most genes have autosomal recessive inheritance; the others have autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive transmission. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, color vision testing, ophthalmological examination and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for congenital stationary night blindness

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). CSNB is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in the case of mutations in the GNAT1, PDE6B and RHO genes, in an autosomal recessive manner in the case of mutations in the CABP4, GNB3, GPR179, GRM6, LRIT3, SAG, SLC24A1, TRPM1 and genes and in an X-linked recessive manner in the case of mutations in the CACNA1F and NYX genes. The overall prevalence of CSNB is not known. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, visual evoked potentials and electroretinography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for corneal dystrophies and other corneal Mendelian diseases

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of the genetic test for corneal dystrophies and other Mendelian corneal diseases (CDs). CDs are mostly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (autosomal recessive inheritance is rare). The overall prevalence is currently unknown. CDs are caused by mutations in the AGBL1, CHST6, COL8A2, DCN, GSN, KRT12, KRT3, NLRP1, PAX6, PIKFYVE, PRDM5, SLC4A11, TACSTD2, TCF4, TGFBI, UBIAD1, VSX1, ZEB1, and ZNF469 genes. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, confocal microscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy (DHRD). The disease has an autosomal dominant inheritance and is caused by variations in the EFEMP1 gene. There is insufficient data to establish the prevalence of DHRD. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for enhanced S-cone syndrome

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS). The disease has autosomal recessive inheritance, a prevalence of less than one per million, and is caused by mutations in the NR2E3 gene. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, ophthalmological examination, electroretinography, color vision testing and optical coherence tomography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). There is insufficient data to determine the prevalence of FEVR. Variations in the FZD4 (OMIM gene: 604579; OMIM disease: 133780), TSPAN12 (OMIM gene: 613138; OMIM disease: 613310) and ZNF408 (OMIM gene: 616454; OMIM disease: 616468) genes have autosomal dominant inheritance, whereas variations in LRP5 (OMIM gene: 603506; OMIM disease: 601813) have autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance and variations in NDP (OMIM gene: 300658; OMIM disease: 305390) have X-linked inheritance. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, slit-lamp examination and fluorescein angiography. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina (GACR). GACR is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and has a prevalence of 1/50000 in Finland. In the international literature there are approximately 200 biochemically confirmed cases. GACR is caused by mutations in the OAT gene. Clinical diagnosis involves ophthalmological examination, electrophysiological testing (electroretinography - ERG), coherence tomography and assay of ornithine levels in body fluids. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for infantile nystagmus

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines in order to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for infantile nystagmus (IN). Forms of IN associated with variations in CACNA1F, FRMD7 and GPR143 genes have X-linked recessive inheritance, whereas variations in SLC38A8, TYR and TYRP1 genes have an autosomal recessive inheritance and variations in COL11A1, CRYBA1 and PAX6 genes have an autosomal dominant inheritance. The prevalence of all forms of IN is estimated to be 1 in 5000. Clinical diagnosis is based on clinical findings, age of onset, family history, ophthalmological examination, fundoscopy, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, slit lamp examination and visual evoked potentials. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, and for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access