O znaczeniu północnego wymiaru w polskiej kulturze i polityce
The article deals with Świętosława (also known as Sigrid the Haughty, Sigrid Storråd, Gunhilda), a figure from the early days of Polish statehood and Christianity, member of the Piast dynasty, a queen of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, a mother of the Canute the Great, a (Viking) king of England and finally both Slav and Pole, and British, and Nordic can be approached from various perspectives. The particularly appealing appears however the opportunity to reflect on the Nordic dimension in Polish social thought, culture and politics.
Świętosława faced a challenge of learning the Nordic people, their language, and all this that is included in the programme of Scandinavian studies at the University of Gdansk “from inside”. Her situation resembles the one investigated by Jerzy Szacki in his sociological survey of tradition. It refers to learning oneself an others once the safe boundary is overstepped and the first step towards what is foreign, different and perhaps shocking is made. It relates to the authentic adventure of migration, but also to education and cross-culture communication promoting mutual understanding of differences and to new perspectives for community development. Finally, it concerns the geopolitical implications of northern dimension for the Polish political ethos, culture and education
Recent scholarship in Dutch literature of the interwar years has revalued to an important degree the genre of regional or rural literature. Whereas existent research in this field mainly zooms in on the thematic motives and rhetorical structures of the regional text, this paper aims at combining a textual and contextual approach. It hopes to do so by linking the functions of the regional genre to the construction of the regional author’s ethos or authority outside his oeuvre. One author here functions as a representative case in point: Warden Oom (Edward Vermeulen), a once successful but now forgotten Flemish folk writer and regionalist. This paper analyzes how Vermeulen, in autobiographical documents and interviews, embodies both an encyclopedic and an artistic authority. These two forms of extra-literary authority are a means to guarantee, so the argument goes, the efficacy of the informative and documentary as well as the esthetic functions of Vermeulen’s regional oeuvre. In this way, this paper not only pays attention to the rarely documented and therefore highly neglected voice of the regional author himself but it also grasps these autobiographical writings to situate the regional text in its broader context. Moreover, this article’s focus on the esthetic ambitions and functions of the regional author and his oeuvre may shed a new light on a genre which is usually considered to be heteronomous in the first place.
The article offers a classification of adjective prefixes in Danish (section 3) including, among others, native and foreign prefixes (e.g. gen- and a-, respectively), genuine prefixes (e.g. ægte-) and particle prefixes (e.g. anti-). Various definitions of prefixal derivatives have been presented in section 4, while section 5 shows examples of and discusses native and foreign negative prefixes modifying the meanings of adjectives in contemporary Danish. The adjectives in question have been analyzed with regards to their structure and the emotional load they convey. Section 6 concludes the paper and includes comments on the productivity of the prefixes in question, as well as synonymy and antonymy in their usage.
The article is an account of the life and death of Halldor Espelid, a young Norwegian RAF pilot born in Bergen, trained at “Little Norway” in Canada, shot down over occupied France, put in the POW camp for airmen in Sagan (now Żagań in Poland), arrested near Flensburg while taking part in the so-called Great Escape, and murdered at the age of 24 by the Kiel Gestapo. His body was cremated, his ashes buried at Sagan and later moved to the Old Garrison Cemetery in Poznań, Poland, together with the remains of 47 other participants of the famous Great Escape murdered at Hitler’s personal order.
In the text presented, I have undertaken an analysis of the early essays of Pär Lagerkvist (dated 1915-1917), both the ones published in periodicals and the unpublished manuscripts in the possession of the Kungliga Biblioteket in Stockholm. In those essays, Lagerkvist paid considerable attention to the matters of the ethics of art and the conflict between the ethical and aesthetical criteria of assessment of the work of art, and those problems are discussed also in Lagerkvist’s letters from that time. The aim of the article is to present this less known area of the artist’s activity and to point to the fact that the consequences of those reflections can be tracked in Lagerkvist’s literary works written in the same time period. Moreover, it can be argued that the understanding of the ethical art and the moral sense of the artistic activity presented in the early texts became an import and lasting feature of Lagerkvist’s writing - and, consequently, it can be claimed that the essays under discussion have a formative effect on Lagerkvist’s later output.
The paper examines the phenomenon of the feminine gender, which in Bokmål is optional. The choice between the masculine and feminine forms is nevertheless not without meaning. It has been proved that if some nouns appear in feminine form earlier in a text, it implies the use of feminine gender on other nouns (Dyvik, 2012). Hence, the appearance of feminine marking on different words is mutually related, and may be shown to be consistent or not. The paper analyses texts written by Polish students of Norwegian on three different levels of language command (A2, B2/C1 and C2+) and investigates their use of feminine marking. The results show that the feminine gender is most often used by beginner learners, which confirms the initial hypothesis. Contrary to expectations, the most advanced students show inconsistency in their choice of feminine marking at least as often as beginner learners. The general conclusion is that the majority of Norwegian learners are not fully aware of the implications which come with the use of the feminine gender.
The article presents an exemplary corpus-based analysis of selected Norwegian idioms in order to gain insight into their theory and actual use. The analysis comprises nine frequent idioms with the component 'heart'. First, each idiom is analyzed using the Leksikografisk bokmålskorpus and Oslo-korpuset av taggende norske tekster in terms of: frequency, possible variants and modifications. Next, the results are compared with the lexicographic description from Norwegian dictionary Bokmålsordboka. The main purpose of this chapter is thereby to show the potential of the corpus-based approach in the studies of idiomatic expressions.
KULTURREFERENSER I ÄLDRE OCH NYARE ÖVERSÄTTNINGAR AV MAJ SJÖWALLS OCH PER WAHLÖÖS KRIMINALROMANER TILL POLSKA
The present paper deals with culture-specific items as a translational problem. It is based on two Polish translations of four Swedish books from the famous detective series by Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö.
The aim of the study is to analyze some of the practices employed by two Polish translators against the translation methods proposed by Newmark (1988), Svane (2002) and Ingo (2009). For this purpose a number of highly specific cultural items have been collected and the methods applied by translators have been identified.
The analysis has shown a big difference between translators in dealing with culture-specific items. The first translator, Maria Olszańska, adopts such translation methods as calque translation, hyperonym, functional equivalent, paraphrase and omission. The other translator, Halina Thylwe, prefers transference and calque translation combined with additional explanations, either in the main part of the text or in footnotes. The methods employed by both translators are a result of choosing between global translation strategies domestication and foreignization (Venuti 1995). Domestication, adopted in the older translations, minimizes the strangeness of the Swedish text to the Polish readers, whereas foreignization in the newer translations retains the foreignness of the original.