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Sports Photography and Historical Development

Summary

Sports photography undoubtedly has a significant place in sports press and publicism. It’s main and primary role is to present sports to the readers as art, which it is. Sport is characterized by dynamic and varied movements, and the main role of sports photography is reflected in the fact that it is in this way that sport shows its essence. Having in mind that photography tells more than a thousand words it sends a clear message to the reader as well to people who are informed about events via sports portals. Sports photography is a multidimensional art for many reasons. When we say “multi”, it primarily refers to a wider range that sports photography has to offer, which means sports photography is not only directed at presenting athletes on the move and the main actors who contribute to achieving the results by their engagement – it also has the role of sports “psychophotography” which is an analysis and capture of the emotional reaction of an athlete after winning or losing from the opposing team.

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Tendencies in Modern Sport

Summary

Sport is a very dynamic social phenomenon that has developed rapidly especially after the Second World War. Studying the history of sport and its present may help determine the tendencies of modern sport and predict how sport will look in the future. This very significant issue has not been addressed extensively in the professional literature. Determining the tendencies of sport development represents the basis of the preparation of young athletes - future successful seniors, but also the basis of the organization of sport within society, the improvement of the system of athletes’ preparation and competition.

The main modern sport tendencies include the following: sport is becoming more important in society; sports information is becoming more extensive and easily accessible; the number of scientific papers on sports has increased; new sports branches are constantly emerging; the number of sports branches included in the Olympic Games is increasing; the volume of training work and competition activities is increasing; general preparation has been reduced in seniors’ training and used as an active rest; the orientation towards multi-year planning of preparation and competition has been more emphasized; the harmonization of training and competition activities has been searched for; non-traditional means of preparation have been increasingly used; the model characteristics of athletes, training stages and competition activities are a landmark in the selection of athletes and their preparation; the methodology of motor skills learning has been improved; the selection of athletes is getting better; the control of sports activities has become better; modern technologies have been increasingly applied in sports; the work in sports has been increasingly team-based, and a larger number of specialists from different professions have been engaged in a team; the sports system has been improved.

Open access
The Authentic and Inauthentic Sport in the Hermeneutic and Phenomenological Perspectives

Summary

The philosophical concept of hermeneutics presents the opposite pole of human mental activities than positivism. Phenomenology, together with hermeneutics, also presents a kind of opposition to the positivistic reduction of learning the world. This paper focuses on the topic of authenticity of sport from these two (hermeneutic and phenomenological) approaches. As a basic theoretical platform Martin Heidegger’s book Time and Being is used. The authors develop a specific kind of categorization of the social groups engaged in sport events via the ancient concepts of “TECHNÉ ATHLETIKÉ” and “TECHNÉ GYMNASTIKÉ”. Two different phenomena: sport and “sport” are examined within the next part of the paper. There are some reasons mentioned in conclusions coming from the hermeneutic and phenomenological approach which help us to understand and accept the opinion that a kind of return to “techné gymnastiké” can support the authentic modes of being in human approach to sport.

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Effect of chronic high-intensity exercise on hunger and satiation and levels of acylated ghrelin and leptin in women

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic high-intensity exercise training on hunger, satia­tion, related hormones and weight loss among women who are obese or overweight. Material and methods: The sample group was composed of 25 subjects, divided into two groups: a high-intensity exercise group (n = 15) intensity of 80-90% of maximum heart rate and a non-training control group (n = 10). The blood sample test was performed in two stages of rest, fasted state and before breakfast and an appetite questionnaire was completed. The training procedure was a high-intensity exercise, three sessions a week for twelve weeks and two hours after breakfast. Independent and dependent t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that high-intensity exercise caused a significant loss of weight (p = 0.01) and fat percentage (p = 0.001) and plasma insulin levels (p = 0.03), but it had no effect on hunger and satiation, calorie intake or plasma leptin. Also, it significantly increased the plasma acylated ghrelin (p = 0.04) and maximum oxygen consumption (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it can be noted that high-intensity exercise is suitable for weight loss and not increasing hunger. The lack of calorie intake along with weight loss showed that negative energy balance caused no appetite compensatory responses. Also, high-intensity exercise stimulates physiological responses to increase appetite, but it did not affect the feeling of appetite. In other words, changes in mental and physiological appetite because of high-intensity exercise do not match.

Open access
Emotions Towards Physical Education Lessons of Hearing Impairments Pupils Attending Special Elementary Schools

Summary

The purpose of this study was to map and analyse the emotions among the pupils attending special schools for children with hearing impairments (HI) towards physical education (P.E.) classes. The main objective was to compare the emotions of their feelings during the P.E. lesson and when the P.E. lesson is cancelled. We analysed the data of 73 pupils attending five grades (from 5th up to 9th) of two special elementary schools (at Hrdličkova Street; n = 37 and at Drotárska cesta Street; n = 36) in Bratislava (Slovakia). The research sample consisted of 45 boys and 28 girls in average age 13.5 ± 1.4 years. 48 % of pupils were deaf, 36 % of them were hard of hearing and 16 % were hearing but with hard communication and learning disorders. A non-standardized questionnaire (Antala et al. 2012) was used as a primary research method. Two of the selected questions were related to the emotionality towards P.E.lessons. The data were differentiated from the point of view of the gender and schools. A comparison of the emotions of pupils with HI pointed out a difference consisting in a significantly higher level of positive emotions during P.E. classes among boys (p < .05) and students attending special school at Hrdličkova Street (p < .05). A statistically significant difference was not discovered in the emotions when P.E. class was cancelled neither among genders nor schools. In general, pupils receiving special education show very high positive emotions of the feelings during P.E. lessons but on the other hand they are happier than disappointed when P.E. lesson is cancelled. This will not only increase the positive emotions towards P.E. lessons but also allow physical activities to become a regular part of pupils’ leisure activities as well as long term sport activities.

Open access
Exit School and its Outcomes on Health-Related Fitness

Summary

School-based interventions are thought to be the most universally applicable and effective way to counteract low physical activity (PA) and fitness. Whereas Exit school it is not included.

Method: For purpose, this controlled study verified the effect of Leaving school on the health relate to fitness among the unschooled.

Results: Based on the validity of alpha health-related fitness test battery, the design of study and statistical processes applied within search limitation. Our results caution against school dropouts on levels of health relate to fitness among the unschooled. Admit in five motor abilities namely strength, speed, endurance, flexibility and coordinative abilities, according to present study. Reported in the benefit of student scholar as an active lifestyle.

Conclusion: our results recommended all the Algerian dropouts-students to know the overall impact of participating and being involved in outdoor sport activities, subjected in this study as getting positive effects regarding active lifestyle, which in turn helps dropouts-students, to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness and preventing them from disorders like obesity, laziness and stress related to life and their complication. A truth that leads us to recommended our teachers to understand the benefits of outdoor education sport or pro-socials activities contents as part of young people's educational experiences, to structure their free time in beneficial activities, including recreation, academic and cultural enrichment, opportunities for pursuit of individual interests and volunteer activities, especially before being expelled from their school.

Open access
Health of Adults Through Prism of Physical Activity

Summary

The aim of the research was to find out the realization of the physical activity among the middle-aged adults by the association with their health, retrospective of the factor contributing to the transfer of the physical activity to the adulthood. The monitored group consisted of 742 respondents of the middle-aged adults from the Southern Districts of Slovakia, of which 403 were the women (age = 37.2 ± 3.04 years) and 339 were the men (age = 36.5 ± 4.54 years) as the selection was deliberate. The monitoring was conducted by the three stages in 2014, through the so-called “Egészség és mozgás” - “Health and Movement” standardized, anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of 60 questions. Our findings point to the stated facts. The findings found the relationship between the health and fitness among the men (r = 0.8300), as well as among the women (r = 0.7193). The relationship between the physical activity and the feeling of health was recorded only among the men (r = 0.8921), while the relationship between the health problems and the feeling of health was also found among the men (r = 0.739), as well as among the women (r = 0, 6714). At the same time, the men perceive the importance of the physical activity, in terms of their health condition (r = 0.8791) more intense than the women. The physical education was significantly (χ2 = 112.47, p < 0.01) among the men (67.6 %, n = 229), opposite to the women (33.7 %; n = 136) contributed to the transfer of the physical activity from the school environment to the adulthood. The stated findings show that the targeted education of the population, even from the childhood with the other effective, preventive measures is very important.

Open access
Internal Load of Elite Malaysian Young Soccer Players in Small Sided Games with Different Parameters

Summary

The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about the internal load of elite young soccer players in small sided games with different parameters in the category under 19 years. The group consisted of 16 elite soccer players under the age of 19. This team competed in the first league of the same age category We have monitored the time spent by players in bio-energy load zones (percentage of maximum heart rate), in small sided games with 2 players against 2, 3 against 3, with the size of the playing field of 25 × 18 meters and 30 × 25 meters. We used basic mathematical and statistical characteristics and Wilcoxon t-test for non-parametric selections. Our study confirmed that in the category under 19 years is valid that the larger number of players (3:3) in small sided games, indicates the players to spend more time in bio-energy zones 4 and 5. Direct correlation also applies to the size of the playing field, depending on the time spent in the load zones 4 and 5. The larger dimension of the pitch indicates to more time the players spend in bio-energy load zones, which is considered to be focal for us. If we want to use them as a way of complex training program (game training), then the small sided games are suitable training strategy.

Open access
Performance Levels of Female Students in Combined Track-and-Field Events

Summary

The authors have evaluated the combined track-and-field events performed by the female students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava (CU FPES) in the years 2013 – 2017. The combined track-and-field events are an obligatory part of the final Athletics examination in the teacher-training study program. The selected disciplines reflect the first day of the men’s decathlon with the exception of the last one, which is replaced by 800 m. The number of points in the combined event enters into the overall assessment of the subject Didactics of Athletics II together with an oral examination. The authors analysed not only the total number of points in the pentathlon but also in the individual disciplines and their percentage share in the final result. They have discovered that the shot put and high jump are among the most stable disciplines. The greatest variance of the percentage share in the overall number of points was observed in the 100 m dash, 800 m and in the long jump. The performance of a high number of students (almost two-thirds) came below the average performance in the particular year as expressed in points.

Open access
Performance Motivation of Bratislava University Students

Summary

The aim of the Study was to broaden the findings regarding the performance motivation of the students of the universities in Bratislava segmented according to university type. The research sample comprised 248 undergraduates (males: n = 141; 22.40 years of age ± 1.62 and females: n = 107; 21.78 years of age ± 1.49). A standardised performance motivation questionnaire (PMQ) was used to measure performance motivation (Pardel, Maršálová & Hrabovská 1992). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate data normality, while the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to test the significance of the differences between individual independent selections. The results revealed significant differences in performance motivation (H(5) = 76.730, p = .000, η2 = .307), anxiety inhibiting performance (H(5) = 128.270, p = .000, η2 = .591) and anxiety supporting performance (H(5) = 95.754, p = .000, η2 = .331) among undergraduates of various types of schools. The students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava show significant differences (p < .001) in all of three dimensions of performance motivation in comparison with all of the other undergraduates segmented in accordance with various school types. Our findings can be explained by the more intensive sporting activity of the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University.

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