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Open access

Emanuel Moisă, Silvius Negoiţă and Dan Corneci

Abstract

Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a hematological parameter usually measured with every complete blood count. Its place in daily practice is mainly in the differential diagnosis of anemia, but nowadays, researchers are focused on different approaches for the erythrocyte’s changes in function and morphology.

Sepsis and its most advanced form, septic shock, induces profound disturbances into organ system’s function and morphology. The red blood cells physiology and structure are directly and indirectly altered by these im balances produced in sepsis. RDW was studied in many diseases, like acute heart failure, acute stroke, inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic lung diseases and cancer, but also in sepsis. Its changes are seen to be mainly associated with prognosis. Higher values of RDW are correlated with mortality and severity of illnes in septic and all-cause critically ill patients. RDW was studied also as an independent variable in different predictive scores and some studies suggest it should be introduced in the scores use on a daily basis in critical care settings and emergency departments.

In this review we will focus on how RDW was associated with mortality and severity of illness in the recent literature, as an independent prognosis factor and as a component part in different predictive and severity scores.

Open access

Md. Suzauddula, M Moeen Miah, Nasima Akter Mukta, Najia Kamrul and Md. Bellal Hossain

Abstract

Moringa oleifera leaves are familiar to all, but unknowing that this leaves contain quite a lot of nutrient value which are useful for human body function. This plant’s leaves contain verities of antioxidant which inhabit & fight against free radical to cell of human body for preventing cancer. Moringa leaves need to dry for use through diversified use. Storage and processing quality depend on better dry. The purpose of this research isto identifying and examined performance of different types of dryer to dry Moringa oleifera leaves. For Moringa dried leaves apply three common type of dryer i.e. sun dryer, multi commodity solar tunnel dryer and oven dryer. This study was conducted to introducing & used of Moringa oleifera leaves as ingredient of functional foods. Through this study the ration of time and moisture loss by several dryer are mentioned. Most of the dryer for temperature range 30°C to 70°C. In MCST dryer found better in color and dried rate as compared others, highest moisture loss in happed in MCST dryer and total removal moisture 75 %. At each dryer 40 g sample was taken. Frequently after 2 hours the dryers were observed and the Moringaleaves (sample 1, 2) were scatteredhomogenously into the baskets or salver. Moistnessreduction datawasnotedaftereach 2 hour breakswhile drying process running. The time and moisture contend will vary for based on the maturity of moringa leaves. In the closing moisture found at the final product was approximately 25 % and total 17.50 g. Optimum amount of moisture content increase shelf life, prevent loss of nutrition and protect form microbial spoilage.

Open access

Fazly Ann Zainalabidin, Fadilah Mohd Hassan, Nur Sapinah Mat Zin, Wan Nabilah Wan Azmi and Mohd Iswadi Ismail

Abstract

Halal certification is one of the prerequisites for entering the global halal market. It does provide recognition of quality and safe product through the concept of halalan toyyiban for the entire supply chain, from farm to fork. In halal meat industry, the system covers from practicing good animal husbandry in the farm until the post-slaughter management in order to maintain the halal status. Animal welfare aspect and ante-mortem inspection were also highlighted in reducing the chances of slaughtering the injured or diseased animal which may not only affecting the meat quality but unhealthy for consumption. Rapid bleeding resulting from the slaughtering process will increases the shelf-life of the meat by reducing the risk of carcass contamination and product deterioration. As the concept of toyyiban (wholesomeness) is practice, the meat is free from any microbiological, physical and chemical hazards.

Open access

Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Radina Vasileva and Nasko Vasilev

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the fetal number in goats by using hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations. The experiments were conducted with 106 clinically healthy Bulgarian local goats, 1.5 to 7 years of age, weighing 35-52 kg. Hormonal examinations were performed on 24 goats. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured during a 7 days interval, between 21-63 day of pregnancy, and during a 14 days interval until the 133rd day of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 82 goats with a multi-frequency linear transducer (5.0-12.0 MHz). All animals were studied once during an interval of 7 days transrectally (21-28 day, 29-35 day, 36-42 day) and transabdominally (43-49 day, 50-56 day, 57-63 day), respectively. The accuracy of determining the number of singleton and multiple pregnancies by hormonal analysis were 51%, 58%, 69% and 47%, 52%, 62%, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonography to determine the number of fetuses is highest in singletons 76.18%, followed by twins 72.56% and the lowest in triplets and more fetuses 21.43%. Highest accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive diagnosis were established in the period 43-49 day of pregnancy (P<0.05). The obtained results show that the most appropriate period is between 42 and 49 day of pregnancy for determination of the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats using ultrasonography.

Open access

Branko Petrinec, Marko Šoštarić and Dinko Babić

Abstract

This article gives an overview of physical concepts important for radioecology and radiotoxicology to help bridge a gap between non-physicists in these scientific disciplines and the intricate language of physics. Relying on description and only as much mathematics as necessary, we discuss concepts ranging from fundamental natural forces to applications of physical modelling in phenomenological studies. We first explain why some atomic nuclei are unstable and therefore transmute. Then we address interactions of ionising radiation with matter, which is the foundation of both radioecology and radiotoxicology. We continue with relevant naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides and their properties, abundance in the environment, and toxicity for the humans and biota. Every radioecological or radiotoxicological assessment should take into account combined effects of the biological and physical half-lives of a radionuclide. We also outline the basic principles of physical modelling commonly used to study health effects of exposure to ionising radiation, as it is applicable to every source of radiation but what changes are statistical weighting factors, which depend on the type of radiation and exposed tissue. Typical exposure doses for stochastic and deterministic health effects are discussed, as well as controversies related to the linear no-threshold hypothesis at very low doses.

Open access

Jasmina Knežević and Tatjana Krstić

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate whether satisfied basic psychological needs reduce the perception of threat generated by job insecurity, defined as self-assessment of the availability of the working role to its performers in the foreseeable future. The study included 310 participants employed in 24 companies, who completed the Perception of Job Insecurity Scale and Need Satisfaction Scale. The hypotheses were tested with multiple regression analyses. The results point to the importance of two basic needs – Autonomy and Competence – as factors that reduce the level of perceived job insecurity. This study broadens the understanding of personality resources as factors that moderate the perception of job insecurity and confirms the self-determination theory in the organisational context. Satisfying the needs for autonomy and competence can serve as a basis for interventions aimed at strengthening resilience to stress in employees.

Open access

Branko Angjelovski, Miroslav Radeski, Igor Djadjovski, Dine Mitrov, Jovan Bojkovski, Nikola Adamov and Toni Dovenski

Abstract

The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and associated clinical signs in farmed sows in the Republic of Macedonia (RM) in the first 12-24 h postpartum. A total of 202 sows of different parity and different genetic lines from 5 pig farms in RM were included in the study. The sows and their litters were clinically examined 12-24 hours after farrowing. Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome was detected in 23.3% of all clinically examined sows, while prevalence between farms ranged from 14.8% to 38.1%. Altered piglet’s behavior was the most frequent clinical pattern observed in 68.1% of the PDS–affected (PDSA) sows. Regarding the clinical signs in PDSA sows detected among farms, significant differences were observed in the altered piglet’s behavior (p<0.05) and hypogalactia (p<0.05). Endometritis was more often detected in older sows (90%) compared to endometritis in younger animals (44.4%). In addition, fever was also more frequently diagnosed in higher parity (≥3 parity) sows (55.0%) in contrast to other PDSA sows (22.2%). This study has demonstrated the presence of PDS in farmed sows in RM. High frequency of altered piglet’s behavior found in this study could be an useful indicator for early detection of lactation problems in sows. Frequent pathological vaginal discharge in older sows indicates that endometritis plays an important role in the clinical manifestation of PDS. Further investigations should be conducted in order to identify specific risk factors associated with clinical PDS in farmed sows in RM.

Open access

Nora Mimoune, Rachid Kaidi, Mohammed Hocine Benaissa, Mohamed Wail Bahouh, Ratiba Baazizi and Mohamed Yassine Azzouz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to carry out the metabolic profile comparison between follicular fluid and serum in normal cows and those affected by ovarian cysts (OC). After slaughtering, blood samples and follicular fluids from normal and cystic animals were collected and assayed using commercial kits to determine the concentrations of metabolites (glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine and insulin) and the liver enzymes activity. Data showed that OC were characterized by low levels of glucose, total protein, cholesterol and cortisol in cystic fluid, while urea concentrations were high compared to normal follicular fluid (P<0.001). On the other hand, serum assays of cystic animals revealed very low values of insulin and urea, whereas cortisol levels were relatively high in comparison with the serum of normal cows (P<0.001). Significant correlations between the serum and follicular fluid concentrations of normal cows were found for glucose (r=0.49), total cholesterol (r=0.31), cortisol (r=0.38) and total protein (r=0.63). The highest correlation was found for urea (r=0.86). On contrary, weak correlations were observed between metabolites concentrations in cystic fluid and in serum for normal and cystic cows. In conclusion, OC grow and persist in a metabolic environment, which differs from follicular fluid to blood. These changes may act together and/or separately to ensure the continuous development of OC. To understand a part of the mechanism, the authors propose a deep study about blood-follicle-barrier.