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Mária Petrufová and Lenka Nagyová

Abstract

The authors of the article highlight globalization trends in the current understanding of the security sector. They emphasize the mission and current requirements for the Slovak Armed Forces and preparation of future military experts in accordance with cosmopolitan policy of NATO and the EU. The authors also underline the need to address the key competences in terms of the relationship manager - leader and a professional soldier not only within the framework of university education, but also within the framework of lifelong and career education in the Slovak Republic.

Open access

Marius Pricopi

Abstract

Although a founding member of the European Union, Germany has been rather reluctant to assume a pre-eminent leadership role in the European military integration process, choosing to focus more on social and economic affairs. But following Brexit, Germany might be also called upon to act as an integration “engine” in the defence area. Using the case study method and the analysis of social documents, we argue that Germany’s high level of military integration allows this state to assume, alongside France, a leading role in the defence pursuits of the European Union.

Open access

Nevena Atanasova-Krasteva

Abstract

The report points the need of studying the gender equality topic as an element of leadership formation of the future officers in the European Armed Forces. The analysis of the approaches to the inclusion of the subject in different disciplines will help to increase the sensitivity and the understanding of the military personnel to the questions related to the implementation of the gender equality in a military environment. The equal treatment of the both sexes and the opportunities for successful realization, based on their professionalism, would contribute to the harmonization of the working environment as a part of modern European policies.

Open access

Lucia-Larissa Morar, Simona Boştină-Bratu and Alina Gabriela Negoescu

Abstract

The aim of the article is to offer a variety of simple resources to foreign language teachers who consider their students’ creativity very important. The activities that we propose apply to all levels of the students and can be adapted to different grammatical structures and vocabulary according to the target students. We undertook research on freewriting in a foreign language class in sophomore cadet groups. At the center of this research, there are students’ products (free texts) and methods used in carrying out the writing activity (writing strategies and solutions for linguistic problems). Since writing has always been a difficult skill and an unpleasant task for most of the students, with this new approach they have found a way of enjoying their own pieces of writing.

Open access

Mădălina Strechie

Abstract

Terrorism is an old phenomenon in human civilization. Terminologically, it comes from Latin, but this scourge also fully manifested itself in Roman civilization, throughout its history. This study seeks to fill a bibliographic gap on this criminal phenomenon, most studies of it starting with the Middle Ages, without any reference to Ancient Rome, which is unfair, especially since Rome was confronted with this phenomenon, which it defined terminologically and to which it responded with the necessary force, thus transforming its defence policy.

The first forms of terrorism emerged in Rome during the Kingdom, when, at the beginning of its political organization, Rome faced numerous terrorist manifestations, especially from outside the Roman state. The Gauls were, at the beginning of the Republic, genuine agents of terrorism in Rome through their plundering expeditions that caused real terror. Etruscan pirates were terrorists, too, for the Roman trade, the struggle of the plebeians and their withdrawal with barricades in order to obtain political rights meant real political terror at that time, then Spartacus’ revolt and his march which spread terror throughout Rome, the civil wars which bled Rome became genuine forms of internal terrorism, especially because of the assassination of Roman state leaders, as well as the corruption masterly unmasked by Cicero.

The forms of external terrorism were also present, the most notorious episode being the Punic wars, in particular the war of Hannibal, the most effective terrorist for Rome, the Dacians’ plundering expeditions in the Roman garrisons in Moesia, the battles with the Parthians and the Britons are as many forms of the terrorism that Rome faced during its history, which compelled it into creating new forces capable of responding to this new way of fighting. We believe that the Praetorian Guard, with all its units, was the most effective counter-terrorist force in combating the terrorist phenomenon strongly manifested in Rome. Therefore Rome, knowing the phenomenon, defined it most precisely, a definition that still applies today.

Open access

Ileana-Gentilia Metea

Abstract

The moments of turning around in Cyprus’ history have long been a source of opportunity for various state actors on the international stage, mentioning, on the one hand, the main stakeholders, Greece, Turkey, on the other, the big players, the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia. The way they have taken advantage of certain situations has made a visible influence on the fate of the island’s inhabitants, but has also been a source of dispute at several levels: economic, geopolitical, geostrategic etc.

Open access

Elena Florişteanu and Dragoș Florişteanu

Abstract

The fiscal and budget policies developed over the last few years by policy makers emphasize fiscal relaxation measures in order to stimulate economic growth. Expected by employers and employees alike, they sometimes lead to results opposite to those pursued, especially if they do not take into account the particularities of the economic domains concerned and the social realities of the state. Due to the limited and often insufficient financial resources, it is necessary to stimulate those areas considered as generators of growth, and a good example in this sense is the research, development and innovation. In the context of the difficulties of ensuring an optimal level of public funding, it becomes increasingly obvious that legislative changes of fiscal and budgetary nature and how they can be implemented can be both a basis for the sustainability of public finances and for increasing competitiveness and a disturbing factor in the labor market and progress.

Open access

Mariana Rodica Ṭḯrlea

Abstract

One Micro-enterprises can benefit from state aid only when they demonstrate that, at the time of the on-line completion of the business plan, they meet cumulatively the eligibility criteria imposed by the funding authority. These criteria are minimal and binding for fund applicants and are conditioned as micro-enterprises: 1. to be organized either according to the Law on Commercial Companies no. 31/1990 or according to Law on co-operation no. 1/2005, republished; 2. are small and medium-sized enterprises; 3. are registered at the national trade registry office; 3. have integral private share capital; 4. have their registered office and / or working place; 5. the subject-matter of the activity is authorized and eligible according to the requirements of the aid scheme at the time of submitting the request for reimbursement; 6. the activity takes place in Romania; 7. does not have obligations to the consolidated budget of the state; 8. is not in bankruptcy, is not in dissolution, is not in judicial reorganization, is not in liquidation, is not subject to forced execution, is not in insolvency or bankruptcy, does not have temporary suspended activity or has operational closure.

Open access

Leontin Stanciu

Abstract

The financial stability is a fundamental condition for ensuring and maintaining the balance and the stability at macroeconomic level. At the same time, ensuring the macroeconomic financial stability is a priority of the state’s economic security as well as of all the public authorities having responsibilities in the field of the macro-prudential regulation and supervision. In this context, our scientific approach aims at systematizing, deepening and developing this fundamental issue of the financial theory and practice.

Open access

Aurelia Teodora Drăghici and Adina Eleonora Spînu

Abstract

According to its purpose, statute and powers well defined in the Constitution, the Romanian Army can defend only the interests of the Romanian nation which has defined, in time, its place and role in society. It is well known that the Military institution has represented a main component of the social and political life during our whole evolution of the Romanian State and the existence of the Romanian nation was always circumcised by its presence. The officer`s body and the hole army played a vital role in promoting the ideas of national interest, especially in the last one and a half century. To thisit is added the high value of the defense function and of the military institution, which played a special role in the risen credibility of the army throughout the civil society, considering all the threats that the Romanian nation and State had faced.