The article highlights the problem of spreading of the invasive species Heracleum sosnovskyi in mountainous geosystems in the border district of Turka in the Lviv region of Ukraine particularly along the border with Poland. The aim of the article was to investigate the areas covered and peculiarities of the spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi. The research methodology consisted of three consecutive steps: preparation, field work, and cameral. The following general scientific methods were used: system analysis and synthesis, comparison, ranking, and the special methods of geoecological studies: field, cartographic, drone survey and photofixation. During the field studies, we sampled seven model areas, representing mountain geosystems with different types of economic use and the presence of Heracleum sosnovskyi: - river valleys, uncultivated agricultural land, narrow strips along roads, abandoned territories. In one of the model areas, a drone survey was conducted, on the basis of which we charted a map presented in the article. We also analysed the stock data and the current state of distribution of the spread Heracleum sosnovskyi in village councils and in the region as a whole. The main problem with the uncontrolled spread of Heracleum sosnovskyi in Turka district is the lack of true data as to the extent of the environmental disaster and the absence of a systematic and planned fight control measures. The article describes the main recommendations for the effective control fight against of this invasive species using foreign experience.
The study was conducted in two small municipalities in Małopolskie voivodeship in Southern Poland. Both municipalities are located in mountain basins in the Western Beskids mountain range.Cores were taken from trees growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka in order to analyse the impact of contemporary air pollution on the health of tree stands. Annual tree rings developed during the era of high atmospheric pollution are usually narrower than the others. These municipalities were chosen due to their current air pollution problems despite their relatively small population.Local chronology, skeleton plots and calculated ring reductions were created for the sample trees. Temporal relationships between air pollution and a negative health reaction in trees and in people were also examined. To fulfil this objective the dates of occurrence of tree-ring reductions were compared with the concentration of particulates (PM10) in the atmosphere and also lung disease morbidity in the local population. Two periods of reduced annual tree rings were detected: first from the 1960s to the end of the 1980s (associated with industrial pollution) and more recently the years since 2003. Since 2003 reductions of annual tree rings have increased in parallel with increases in dust pollution. This reaction of trees to dust pollution was immediate. The negative reaction of trees preceded several years of increasing lung disease morbidity. This gives basic evidence to support the argument that tree ring reductions could be used as an early bioindicator for warning against the risk of air pollution. The aim of this work was to determine the periods of reduction in the annual growth of spruce growing near the centre of Rabka-Zdrój and Sucha Beskidzka. In addition, potential associations were sought between the time of occurrence of these periods and changes in air pollution and human disease.
Blessy Baby Mathew and Nideghatta Beeregowda Kirshnamurthy
Groundwater samples were collected from the Peenya Industrial area of Bengaluru, India to test its quality, elemental composition and inherent bacterial population. Further analysis was done using GIS Based Geostatistical techniques to study the level of groundwater and to generate various maps of lineament, digital elevation, geomorphology, soil erosion, salt affected areas and water logging in this region. Physical and chemical parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids, pH, temperature, BOD, COD, metal ions present in the water samples were studied along with predominant microbial constituents. The Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness were far beyond the maximum concentration levels. Further analysis of the isolated bacteria was done using staining methods and biochemical tests. The results obtained showed that the area under study had wells ranging from shallow to deep heights of 30 to 80 meters, with a wide variety of 10-400 LPM; whereas the lineament map suggested that the area was bound with parallel ridges and joints. The geographical data represented pediplain complexes, anthropogenic terrains and water bodies. The area was found to go through a seasonal water logging and the soil loss was due to sheet erosion and rill erosion. It was also observed that the groundwater was contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, chromium etc. along with a diversified bacterial population.
This paper concentrates information on the flash flood produced during 02-04.06.2016 in the Trotuş River basin. Maximum flows have been analyzed by reference to the thresholds corresponding to the Defense Levels. In order to show in a suggestive way the amplitude of the event, the characteristics of the flood were highlighted as well as a series of morphometric and hydrological data on the maximum flow of the Trotuș River. The hydrometric stations in the basin area, to which reference was made, were: Lunca de Sus, Goioasa, Tg. Ocna, Onești and Vrânceni. The flow series were represented graphically to be able to easily observe the evolution of the flood over time. The analysis showed that the flood produced on the Trotuș River had a great magnitude causing significant damages.
The paper analyzed the annual number of days with precipitation from 4 weather stations located in Maramureş County, during 1961-2016. The frequency of these days, their spatial and temporal variability, the decennial distribution of the number of days with precipitation, the trend and the assurance degree of the annual number of days with precipitation were also studied. The result was that in Maramureș County, between 157 and 194 days with precipitation occur on average per year. The mean annual number of days with precipitation increases from west to east, as the altitude of landforms increases, but also from south to north, as latitude increases. The analysis of the rainy and dry yearly intervals reveals the appearance of several extreme years towards the end of the analyzed period, in the last decade and a half (2000-2016). The linear trend of the annual number of days with precipitation is slightly increasing at the lowest station Baia Mare and decreasing at the other stations. The wettest decades were the 5th (2001-2010) and the 1st (1961-1970), and the driest decades were the 6th (2011-2016) and the 3rd (1981-1990). On the territory of Maramureş County, the values corresponding to the characteristic assurances (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 80 and 100%) of the annual number of days with precipitation increase from west to east and from south to north. Once every 100 years, between 225 and 273 days with precipitation can occur in Maramureș.
The identification of areas with flood potential risk is important concerning the rational management of emergencies in case of floods. The most significant floods in the history of Romania occurred in the catchment basin of Siret (Uz River being an indirect tributary) and Prut. The analysis focused on the identification of flood potential risk index. The study involves the analysis of natural and anthropogenic physical and geographic factors: lithology, land declivity, soil texture, profile curvature and land use. The weighting of each analyzed factor for the contribution to floods was obtained using the AHP extension of the ArcGIS software. This methodology was applied for the lower Uz river basin, situated downstream from Lake Poiana Uzului. The catchment basin of Uz was affected by major floods in the summer of 2005, while the Uz River recorded a maximum historic discharge of 132 m3/s, at the precipitation station of Darmanesti, situated upstream from the Poiana Uzului reservoir. The consequences of the historic high water were serious. Extended surfaces within the major riverbed were flooded, numerous houses were partially damaged and some destroyed. The study highlights that the highest values of flooding index range between 3.96 and 4.71 and that they affect 14% of the entire surface of the studied area.
Present study is dedicated to assessment and analysis of flood runoff and its spatial distribution in the limits of the Republic of Moldova. SCS-CN model and GIS were used as main methods and techniques for runoff assessment. Main components which were considered for flood runoff estimation are soils (soil texture and moisture condition), land cover and rainfall (for 1% probability). The results showed the region that is the most affected by flood runoff is northern part of the republic with flood runoff >100 mm, the lowest flood runoff values being estimated for the southern part of the country with <50 mm. Soil moisture conditions have a important impact on flood runoff amount, increasing its averages with 30 to 60% in case of wet condition and decreasing it with 35-65% in case of dry soil. It was also observed that flood runoff distribution is highly influenced by land cover, the average values being twice as high in urban area than under natural vegetation.
Irene Villafañe, Colin Keogh, Thomas P. Curran and Emmanuel G. Reynaud
As the production of single use plastic packaging materials is increasing rapidly, the resultant generation of waste material is quickly becoming one of the world’s major environmental issues. These plastic materials are highly stable, with excellent material properties which can allow them to be used beyond their intended single use. To effectively utilize these recovered plastic materials, an understanding of their mechanical properties is required. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recovered plastic bottles to prove the feasibility of utilisation for additional uses in non-shredding based recycling systems with lower energy requirements. This system would conserve the physical integrity of the bottles, using them as a raw material for new direct reuse and repurposing applications. Tensile tests were conducted on samples cut from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles considering different sets of variables: cutting method, orientation of the samples and degradation method. The results clearly demonstrate the superior strength characteristics, and minimal effect of degradation, showing the potential for a whole new field of applications where these recovered materials could be used. However, successful adoption of this new concept relies on structural changes to the operations of recycling and manufacturing companies as well as legislators, regulators and the general public.
The work shows historical pollution aspects of the soil on a range of approximately 2000 m2 located in the east of Botosani city at the loading platform/discharge heavy fuel oil in the enclosure thermal power company S.C. Modern Calor found S.A. This study was based on a series of works based on projects of soil and groundwater investigation in the area of the heating company S.C. Modern Audit Office found S.A. Soil contamination is the result of pollution over time, which is due primarily to faulty-urilor occurring during operation of the pipes or the sewage system in the territory of society of heating, to the lines of transport heavy fuel oil.At present, industrial pollution control, requirements imposed by Community acquis on environment, shall be carried out on the basis of directive (IPPC Directive, Directive LCP) and other techniques of the medium (BAT-s corresponding BREF, in the industrial sector). By these tools are prevents and controls in full pollution, thereby reducing industrial pollution.
When assessed from a global perspective; environmental problems, especially in the last five decades, have been a threat to almost all countries. International organisations and institutions struggle to develop effective solutions for arising issues. Climate change is also evaluated as one of the most crucial risks for the environment. European Commission regular progress reports hold a guiding role for the candidate countries and in light of that numerous policies of the relevant countries have aligned with the European Union (EU) acquis. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the climate change policy of Turkey within the context of regular progress reports in an effort to mend the gap fill the void in literature regarding climate change policy of Turkey. Therefore, 7 regular progress reports between the years 2010-2016, when climate change was considered as a title, will be scrutinised in terms of legislation, institutional structure and emission gas through content analysis method with the aim of having a functional assessment about the determinations and the expectations of the EU. The study reveals that although Turkey has made fundamental progress over the years regarding climate change, there are still some crucial issues that need to be reconsidered to have an effective climate change policy.