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Annual Financial Statements, the Importance of Other Comprehensive Income

Abstract

The objective of the research was to verify whether the financial information presented in other comprehensive income has a material impact on the statement of total comprehensive income and financial statements viewed as a whole. The research focused primarily on the presentation requirements defined by the International Accounting Standard IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements and study of the annual reports filed in 2014-2016 by the WIG 20 constituent companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. In order to assess whether the impact of the financial information reported in other comprehensive income is material, relevant concepts of materiality were applied. It was tentatively assumed that the financial information presented in other comprehensive statement will be material. The results of the conducted research study confirmed in general this assumption.

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A Case Study of Supply Chain Management in a Manufacturing Company in China

Abstract

How to manage inventory is becoming an increasingly crucial issue for most manufacturing companies. R&D, the pseudonymous case study considered here, is a foreign direct investment (FDI) company engaged in producing electronic components. As the prices of raw materials and operation costs increased, R&D was challenged to maintain a smooth relationship among several factors: level of inventory, customer satisfaction and production efficiency. This paper first discusses the key factors that affect R&D’s inventory level. It then combines recent supply chain management theories and quantitative data into a framework for identifying how R&D might determine optimal ordering policies and strategies to reduce overall costs, while at the same time satisfying customers in terms of service.

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Cluster Analysis for the Determination of Innovative and Sustainable Oriented Regions in Europe

Abstract

In the past decades the preoccupation of decision-makers towards innovation and sustainable development has gained a major importance in the policy of most countries in Europe. On one hand, efficient innovation can differentiate a country or a region from another and make a difference in the intense increasing economic, technological and social competition. On the other hand, the orientation towards sustainable development assures a clean and unpolluted, social oriented and healthy environment as a framework for the growth of a country or a region. In many cases, innovation and sustainable development go hand in hand, as innovations contribute to the development of clean technologies, while sustainable societies assure the proper environment and background for stimulating the innovation research. The objective of this research is to determine the cluster of countries in Europe which are rather oriented to innovation or to sustainable development or both and to forecast their future developments and tendencies. In order to achieve this objective, the multivariate cluster analysis was applied with the help of the SPSS program, for data provided by the Eurostat for several innovation, sustainable development and contextual indicators. In a first step, for each of the analyzed countries, the values of the indicators have been collected for the same period and the correlations among them have been determined. In the second phase the number of clusters and the cluster membership of each country was determined, by running the Ward cluster analysis. Based on the results, the characteristics of each cluster of countries was defined.

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Comparison of Investment Performance Measures Using the Example of Selected Stock Exchanges

Abstract

In this paper the main objective is to examine whether the selection of the performance measure influences the evaluation of individual investments and the performance rankings generated on that basis. This study presents the values of 16 performance indicators along with their detailed descriptions. All calculations were made using the R program, and the source code can be found at the end of the article. Nine selected stock indices were analysed during the period January 1997–December 2015, and the monthly logarithmic rates of return for these indices were calculated. For 14 out of the 16 measures analysed it was shown that the choice of effectiveness measure had no influence on the evaluation of individual investments; therefore it is not important whether the investor uses the Sharpe ratio or the Calmar ratio as an indicator of efficiency since both measures are almost identical in rank for a particular investment. This has not been confirmed for the Upside Potential ratio, which means that using this indicator may lead to different investment decisions in which the objective is to maximize efficiency. Moreover, based on the analysis it was found that the OMXC 20, DAX 30, and OMXS 30 indexes had the highest efficiency during the period January 1997–December 2015, while the AEX, WIG 20, and PSI 20 indexes were characterized with having the lowest levels of efficiency.

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The Convergence of Financial and Management Accounting in Poland

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the results of a study on the convergence of financial accounting and management accounting in companies operating in Poland against the background of international solutions. The survey, carried out in 2017, was used to collect data. Based on the questionnaire returned by 40 companies, it was found that the level of convergence of financial accounting and management accounting in Polish enterprises is moderate. The number of worldwide studies on the convergence of accounting is very limited, and in Poland they are quite unique. For this reason, the study presented in this article is relevant both for science and the practice of accounting.

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The Dynamics of Extreme Poverty in Developing Countries

Abstract

This paper aims to analyses the trends and dynamics of extreme poverty in developing countries. The study attempts to answer one critical question: has the world achieved its number one Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing extreme poverty by half by 2015? The methodology used in this study mainly involves a descriptive data analysis during the period 1981-2015. The study used the World Bank’s US$1.90 a day line (popularly known as $1 a day line) in 2011 prices to measure the level of absolute poverty. In order to analyze the dynamics of poverty across different regions, the study grouped countries into five regions: i) sub-Saharan Africa; ii) East Asia and the Pacific; iii) South Asia; iv) Europe and Central Asia; and v) Latin America and the Caribbean. The study found that in 1990, there were around 1.9 billion people living below US$1.90 a day (constituting 36.9 percent of the world population) and this number is estimated to have reduced to around 700 million people in 2015, with an estimated global poverty rate of 9.6 percent. The world met the MDG target in 2010, which is five years ahead of schedule. However, extreme poverty is becoming increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), where its depth and breadth remain a challenge. SSA remains the poorest region, with more than 35 percent of its citizens living on less than US$1.90 a day. Half of the world’s extremely poor people now live in SSA, and it is the only region which has not met its MDG target.

Open access
The Educational Role of the Accountants Association in Poland (AAP) After the Deregulating of the Profession

Abstract

Due to the commonly perceived need to specialize in one professional activity, the role of education is increasing. This includes accounting specializations which are important as professions of public trust. In connection with such expectations, the role of education among professional groups of accounting professionals at all levels is increasing. The article presents the educational requirements for the professional specialization on accounting against the IFAC International Education Standards and in the context of the deregulation of the accountancy professions in Poland. As a solution to the problems of appropriate education, the role of the Accountants Association in Poland (AAP) was pointed out, based on the courses provided by it, aimed at not only improving the qualifications of the individuals who are involved in accounting professionally, but also on the supporting ethics. The courses taught were analyzed in across-section of their participants in the years 2013-2016. The method adopted to achieve the intended purpose was the analysis of the available literature, the laws in force and the sources provided by the AAP. On the basis of the research, it was found that despite the absence of mandatory professional certification for accounting and bookkeeping, the professionals in this area do see the need for continuous education and take diverse action to raise the quality of the services they provide.

Open access
Estimating R&D Returns In Health Care Industry

Abstract

Purpose: This paper provides an empirical evaluation of R&D returns for a series of global companies who lead in innovation within the health care industry.

Methodology: The estimation procedure bases on two specifications: the parametric production function setting, and finite distributed lag model (FDL).

Findings: Using the most recent data on R&D investment by health care equipment and services along pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies, we confirm the positive albeit mitigated impact of R&D efforts on performance indicators (levels of sales). Moreover, we comment on the current phenomena observed in health care industry and offer a policy view for ongoing and future challenges in the sector.

Added value: Since there is a dearth of recent empirical evidence on R&D returns in the broad health industry, this paper offers the evaluation of economic incentives for companies to invest in R&D. These incentives embrace the induced increase in sales and profits levels. The authors participate in a public debate concerning the optimal levels of R&D rewards required to sustain the innovation within the sector.

Open access
Goodwill in the Process of Mergers and Acquisitions in Poland

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to verify if the goodwill (positive or negative) disclosed after a merger or acquisition is sensitive to manipulating the financial result in the acquiring company. Manipulating the result referred to the extent of cost allocation in short-term prepayments. Later we examined if the operational result achieved by the acquiring company (profit or loss) has an impact upon the revealed goodwill. The verification of the research hypotheses was performed with the use of statistical tools (linear regression analysis, nonlinear regression function test, normality of residual distribution test). As a result of the research, no significant relation between allocating costs and the disclosed negative goodwill was found, only in the case of positive goodwill its value was related to the allocating in assets costs. Neither positive nor negative goodwill was related to the operating results of the acquiring companies in one year preceding the merger or acquisition.

Open access
The Impact of Accounting and Tax Law Concerning Borrowing Costs on the Assessment of the Financial Leverage Effect

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the impact of accounting and tax law concerning borrowing costs on the assessment of financial leverage effect. Due to the fact that these legal regulations require, in some cases, the recognition of borrowing costs not in the profit and loss account but in the value of assets, previously used methods for the identification of financial leverage effect do not always allow to draw the correct conclusions. Therefore, the paper proposes the necessary modification.

Open access