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Wellness Tourism: What Motivates the Consumer


In this paper one research will be presented, which is focusing on the factors of decision making in the tourism sector. Health and wellness tourism have become a major trend in the past years, since more and more consumer care about their health.

The stressful life, people live nowadays also lead to increased health risk which justifies the growing need for relaxation during the holidays as well. In the study we also present the factors of an analysis and the key motivators when deciding about the destination.

Open access
Would you Make the Right Decision? – Decision Making Biases in Economy - Related Dilemmas


As they say, money can’t buy happiness. However, the lack of it can make people’s lives much harder. From the moment we open our first bank account, we have to make lots of financial decisions in our life. Should I save some money or should I spend it? Is it a good idea to ask for a loan? How to invest my money? When we make such decisions, unfortunately we sometimes make mistakes, too. In this study, we selected seven common decision making biases - anchoring and adjustment, overconfidence, high optimism, the law of small numbers, framing effect, disposition effect and gambler’s fallacy – and tested them on the Hungarian population via an online survey. In the focus of our study was the question whether the presence of economic knowledge helps people make better decisions? The decision making biases found in literature mostly appeared in the sample as well. It proves that people do apply them when making decisions and in certain cases this could result in serious and costly errors. That’s why it would be absolutely important for people to learn about them, thus increasing their awareness and attention when making decisions. Furthermore, in our research we did find some connection between decisions and the knowledge of economics, people with some knowledge of economics opted for the better solution in bigger proportion

Open access
Adapting International Experience to the Deposit Guarantee System in Ukraine


The research objective of the article is the substantiation of methodological and applied recommendations for improving deposit guarantee system in Ukraine in view of the international experience. The study object is the deposit guarantee system management in the framework of reforming the Ukrainian legislation aimed at establishing a mechanism of deposits guaranteeing. During the research there were used such methods as: dialectical method and methods of analysis and synthesis - to study the features of deposit guarantee systems of developed countries, the characteristics of mechanism for returning deposits and international law peculiarities; statistical method - to analyze the indicators of banking system in Ukraine and credit unions (CU), for empirical determining CU to banks indicator ratio as well; structural and logical analysis - to develop theoretical and methodological principles of forming effective deposits guaranteeing mechanism in Ukraine. The need to ensure the system of deposits guaranteeing not only to individuals but also to individual-private entrepreneurs and legal entities was established. This will facilitate the development of small and medium businesses in the country. There were analyzed peculiarities of credit unions activity in Ukraine in the context of reforming the banking system. The possibility of including the credit unions to the deposit guarantee system of Ukraine by the example of the EU countries and the world was substantiated. There were characterized necessary amendments to the national legislation in the field of deposit guaranteeing and the effective mechanisms for their implementation were proposed.

Open access
The business case for corporate social responsibility: A literature overview and integrative framework


Purpose: The goal of this paper is to develop a framework describing the mechanisms which explain how and when CSR engagement affects company’s bottom line, based on a review of the business case for CSR literature.

Approach: This article is conceptual and based on literature review. By using a CSR stage development model, behavioral and stakeholder perspectives, it offers a descriptive multi-dimensional integrative framework of the business case for CSR.

Findings: The findings show that the relationship between engagement in CSR activities and corporate performance (CP) depends on a CSR development stage, managerial interpretation of CSR issues, stakeholder management model and moderating factors.

Originality: This article integrates disconnected models and conceptualizations in the subject literature and contributes to the theoretical discussion by arguing that type and scale of benefits from CSR activity progress along the stages of organizational CSR development. Moreover, it also shows that the CSR-CP relationship depends on internal and external factors (mediators and moderators). It therefore supports the contingency argument.

Open access
Company Actions and Value Drivers: Manager Reports from Polish Firms


Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify what are the cause-effect patterns of how company actions influence value drivers in Polish firms.

Method: The method used in the study consists of (1) the generation of informant reports (stories) about what actions performed in their firms influenced the value drivers and (2) the identification of the repeating (replicating) patterns of such influence.

Results: The study identifies five actions that reduce the unproductive time of participants of business processes and three actions influencing new product introductions or modifications.

Managerial implications: Managers should (1) use standardization and automation, delegation of secondary activities, and trainings in teamwork to reduce unproductive time, more quickly fulfill contracts (with current products), and influence four financial value drivers. Moreover, they should (2) gather knowledge about the alternative ways of thinking about particular problems and (3) use personal participation of knowledge possessor’s teams in clients’ problem-solving places.

Limitations and future research: The author identifies five limitations of the performed study and formulates relevant suggestions for future research.

Originality/value: The study contributes to management theory by (1) clarifying conceptual relations between the actions of firms (causes) and value drivers (effects) and (2) analyzing the manager reports about the real business value-creation processes.

Open access
Controlling the Tax Burden of the Enterprise in the Reality of Ukrainian Legislation


The essence of the “tax burden” is revealed in the paper. The formulas for the determination of an integral and particular tax burden for businesses, who pay taxes on the common system of taxation, are offered. Some measures of optimization of the tax burden in order to stimulate entrepreneurial activity of domestic enterprises, including local and macroeconomic optimization measures, are proposed. The tax burden on enterprise in the form of tax rates in other countries is also presented.

Open access
Dignity in the Workplace. The Perspective of Humanistic Management


Purpose: The aim of this article is to fill the gap in the Polish discourse on management about the concept of dignity in the workplace. The text presents the issue from the perspective of humanistic management. The article analyzes contemporary discussion about dignity in the workplace conducted in the Western discourse on management.

Methodology: The reflections stem from a critical analysis of popular concepts of dignity in the workplace in the management discourse. The author also uses the existing results of empirical research. The analysis uses management literature on dignity, which is the basis for systematizing available concepts.

Findings: The literature analysis enables systematization of various concepts of dignity in the workplace and identification of specific levels in the quality of employee treatment in an organization. Hence, the author identifies a few key factors that affect employees’ dignity in the workplace both positively and negatively and indicates mechanisms that allow for the humanization of work processes.

Research limitations: The theoretical reflections should be verified by empirical research in organizations. However, the area of research on dignity in the workplace is not problematized enough, potential problems still require in-depth theoretical research.

Practical implications: The reflection on dignity in the workplace emphasizes the organizational mechanisms that lead to the humanization and dehumanization of work processes. The problematization of the category of dignity should allow researchers to conduct empirical research in organizations and managers to design organizational solutions that protect the well-being of their employees which, in consequence, may have a positive impact on the organization’s development.

Originality: The article discusses the concepts of dignity in the workplace which are absent in the Polish discourse of management and indicates directions of further research in the field.

Open access
Employer Branding as a Source of Competitive Advantage of Retail Chains


Purpose: Developing a strong, favourable employer brand of a retail chain may be regarded as an important means of creating a competitive advantage. Retail chains should attract personnel with desired competence required for their particular purposes. The retail sector in Poland is perceived as a strongly disliked employer. Thus employer branding can be an important element of strategies adopted by retail chains operating in Poland.

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the development of employer branding strategies implemented by selected global retailers operating in Poland and the impact of such strategies on their respective competitive positions in the Polish market. The time frame for the analysis is the period of 2009–2014.

Research design and methods: In addition to a review of the literature on the development of employer brands, this paper includes a case study of a few global retail chains operating in Poland.

The paper is based on the assumption that retail chains pursue competitive advantage by developing employer brand strategies.

Implications and recommendations: A continued engagement in strategic activities in the field of employer branding is very important for retail chains. Decision makers need to pay special attention to the promotion of their retail chains as a good workplace, using employer branding techniques.

Open access
Etatism versus liberalism: Economic attitudes in Poland after the world crisis


Purpose: The paper analyses etatist and liberal economic attitudes in Poland, their changes after the last economic crisis, and the differences in this respect between socio-occupational groups with a particular focus on managers, professionals, and business owners, on the one hand, and other working and non-working groups, on the other hand.

Methodology: Individual-level data from three representative surveys conducted in 2012,2 2016, and 2017 on stratified random samples of the whole adult Polish population are analyzed.

Findings: Despite public legitimization of economy based on private ownership and the free market, Polish public opinion still shows strong preference for public ownership and state interventionism. This preference slowly diminishes. It differs between various socio-occupational groups: managers, professionals, and business owners are more liberal than others, especially non-working people and farmers.

Research implications: Since strengthening the regulatory and controlling functions of the government in economic life is the recent tendency in Poland and other countries, the slowly growing liberal attitudes may counteract this direction. So far, however, the Polish public opinion strongly supports governmental intervention in the economy.

Originality: So far, no one wrote a similar analysis of changes in etatist and liberal economic attitudes in the post-crisis Poland.

Open access