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Purpose: This article concerns the attitudes of Polish consumers toward the country of origin of the brand. The aim is to describe the characteristics of cosmetics brands depending on the country of origin according to the opinions of Polish consumers.

Methodology: The study covers several types of cosmetics: creams, shampoos, soaps, and lotions. The text analyzes twelve characteristics of brands and twelve countries of origin. The quantitative study bases on the Web Panel Interview method. The survey is representative of Polish adult internet users.

Findings: The study shows significant differences in the perception of the characteristics of cosmetics brands depending on the country of origin. Companies may use the positive features associated with the country of origin of the brand in the process of creating value for customers.

Research limitations: The results are valid for all brands of cosmetics from the selected country but not for individual brands. The research analyzed twelve characteristics of brands and twelve countries of origin. Thus, future research should address other characteristics and countries of origin. The opinions of Polish consumers may differ from those of other countries.

Originality: The originality of this study consists in the analysis of many differences in the perception of the brands depending on the country of origin. This article shows that the selected country of origin may be associated with many different characteristics.


An important role in an organization is played by the management information system that enables managers to perform management tasks. The pillar of this system is financial and non-financial data provided by the management accounting system. The effect of the application of specific management accounting tools are various types of studies and analyses, defined in internal reports, which are the basis for management, and thus making decisions by managers. Internal reports, in order to fulfil their functions effectively, must have appropriate features as to its structure, content and other properties. In connection with this, the authors studied and presented an assessment of managers from Poland and Romania in the context of such properties of internal reports as quality, content, presentation and comments. The survey method was used as the research method, while the analysis of collected research material was based on cluster analysis and descriptive statistics. The sample consisted of 154 questionnaires. The findings are similar in both countries, although in the case of Romania, managers who assessed highly the quality and content of internal reports, and evaluated slightly lower the presentations and comments.


Purpose: The willingness of consumers to engage in co-creation activities is affected by multiple factors, including intrinsic motivation, firm-level factors, and expected outcomes of the participation in co-creation process. However, the final decision of customer engagement in co-creation is determined by the level of brand attachment and love experienced by customers, product category, and the type of needs satisfied with the object of co-creation. The current research proposes a holistic view of the abovementioned factors and variables by exploring their relationships and mutual influence.

Methodology: This study analyzes the results of qualitative research on the dynamics between positive client attitude toward a brand and the willingness to engage in co-creation activities.

Results/Findings: The study reveals that the willingness to engage in co-creation activities is strongly related to the level of brand attachment except for when people conduct such activities to experience the process itself. The level of customer satisfaction from participation in co-creation processes influences their future sense of brand love and attachment. Moreover, the way and strength of customer engagement in co-creative projects are affected by the product category. The authors especially stress the importance of a strategic approach toward designing and implementing co-creation projects and the key role of appropriate communication with participants.


In the last 20 years many OECD countries have adopted some form of diagnosis-related group (DRG) prospective payment system to reimburse hospitals. In Poland, hospitals are also paid fixed prices, imposed by Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia (NFZ) according to DRG, for patients treated. The aim of this paper is to calculate, analyze and compare the costs of patient conditions within the same DRG (F72 – inguinal hernia), collate these costs and the reimbursement from NFZ with the purpose of determining the net profit and then check if it matches bigger research samples. In order to realize the aim of the paper, a comparative and a content analysis of medicals documents and financial data were adopted, and Student’s t-test was performed. The Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to confirm the correctness of the research sample. The results revealed that the reimbursement for costs related to inguinal hernia treatment covers the costs of 90% of patient conditions from the research sample.


The aim of the paper is to examine whether their profession is a source of satisfaction for Polish accountants. The study used the results of a nationwide survey by the accountants association in Poland “2017 accountants’ portrait”. As it results from more than 2,500 responses by accountants, over three quarters of respondents assess their own job satisfaction highly. The image of an accountant satisfied with their job does not match the stereotypical perception of this profession. The respondents’ answers indicate that the level of satisfaction is related to the position held and the remuneration received. The perception of accountants as “generators of additional costs” or “business impediments” is also significant, which can lower satisfaction with working in accounting. The paper employs methods of a source analysis and a diagnostic survey. The data collected in the survey was analysed using simple statistical methods and was appropriately presented.


Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out whether the online shopping behaviors ROPO and Reverse ROPO Effect differ between Poles and Germans.

Methodology: The author conducted quantitative research among Polish and German students (129 questionnaires). The measures for this study were hypotheses that tested in mean and comparative analysis.

Findings: In the context of online consumer behavior, the results indicate that consumers display different preferences for ROPO or Reverse ROPO Effect. These differences trace back to cultural differences, particularly different uncertainty avoidance levels, and different stage of e-commerce markets maturity.

Research implications: E-commerce markets constantly evolve and so does online consumer behavior. While immature e-commerce markets follow their mature counterparts, their respective online consumer behavior also evolves, currently displaying different tendencies in ROPO and Reverse ROPO Effect between markets.

Limitation: Respondents that cover all age groups would be more representative of the respective countries of analysis. Moreover, instead of a cross-sectional, one should conduct further research with a time-series study to capture trends in behavior adoption, which effect from the evolving nature of the e-commerce retail market.


The aim of the article is to analyse the change in the quotations of Polish listed companies, which change the stock exchange index as part of the periodic change in the composition of the WIG20, mWIG40 and sWIG80 stock market indices. The research methodology uses abnormal return (AR) based on daily logarithmic rates of return of Polish listed companies and daily logarithmic rates of return on the stock market indices (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80). In this way, they defined the relative strength of listed shares in relation to the stock indices revision a month before the composition of the stock index, when the drawn up list of companies is changing the composition of the index. In addition, the relative strength of quoted shares in relation to stock exchange indices after the revision of the composition of the stock exchange index in the short-term (one month) and medium-term perspective (six months) was examined. The research was based on quarterly changes in the composition of stock exchange indices in the years 2010-2015. The analyses carried out indicate the existence of positive surplus stock returns a month before the change in the stock index. The average number of quotes of these companies above the stock market index at the time amounted to +0.52 percentage points. In turn, the average increase in the prices of the debuting companies in the new stock exchange index within 6 months after their flotation it amounted to +0.97 percentage points over the benchmark (WIG20, mWIG40, sWIG80).


Purpose: The article analyzes the possible methods of public debt management, which not only aim to meet regulatory requirements but also obtain a market premium in the form of an optimal level of the yield on government bond yields that will be profitable for the issuer. The study analyzes the situation in the public finance sector in the countries that form the Visegrád Group (V4). The authors evaluate the main regulatory requirements of EU law in the area of numerical fiscal rules and their impact on the yield on basic securities such as ten-year government bonds, which directly influences the cost of servicing long-term public debt.

Methodology: The study uses desk research method for theoretical reasoning to verify the research hypothesis. The study seeks to answer the question of whether the application of national and EU fiscal rules in V4 budgetary frameworks contributes to lower yields on ten-year bonds and thereby reduces the cost of public debt. The authors utilize time series and cause-effect analysis as well as quantitative research for the systematization of statistical information and regression analysis for the examination of statistical dependencies.

Findings: The basic parameters subject to financial assessment within the fiscal rules index are (1) the deficit of public finance sector and (2) public debt with its servicing costs. In 2005–2016, the ratio of the public finance sector deficit to GDP was shaped in such a way that most V4 countries required the institution of excessive deficit procedures and further disciplinary regulations. The assessment of the situation in the public finance sector in the area of budget deficit and public debt does not translate into the yield on government bonds of non-Eurozone countries. Model-based testing indicates that the financial markets – when deciding to evaluate or purchase government bonds of non-Eurozone countries – failed to acknowledge the implementation of fiscal rules in these countries and its possible effects.

Originality: The study focuses on a unique comprehensive analysis of national fiscal rules employed in individual V4 countries and their impact on the yield on government bonds throughout the entire EU membership of the V4. What holds the greatest cognitive value in this article is the answer to the question of whether Eurozone membership impacts the valuation of a country’s public debt.


The paper presents the features of the construction industry and the ways of organising investment processes, as well as the methods for the valuation of the services implemented within its scope. The individual valuation methods were assigned to the applicable provisions of Polish balance sheet law and the International Financial Reporting Standard No 15 “Revenues from contracts with customers” in force since 2018. On the basis of a practical example, there was illustrated the achieved financial result of a company providing installation services as a subcontractor in view of all the possible valuation methods. The author presented and evaluated the anticipated effects of the new standard’s entry into force, and in conclusion presented a selection of the valuation methods for the services performed in this industry, which is complicated and has a decisive impact on the amount of profits and losses of the financial results presented in the account.