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The Water Cooling System in the Pool of the Dgkn-120 Hyperbaric Simulator Chamber

Abstract

This article presents a description of the water cooling system in the pool of the "Kobuz" decompression chamber constituting a part of the DGKN-120 hyperbaric simulator used at the Department of Underwater Works Technologies of the Naval Academy in Gdynia.

Open access
Early identification of patients in need of palliative care in slovenian general practice

Abstract

Background

To help general practitioners (GPs) in early identification of patients with palliative care (PC) needs, this pilot study aimed to determine the potential of the combined original surprise question (SQ1) (‘Would I be surprised if this patient died within the next 12 months?’) and the second surprise question (SQ2) (‘Would I be surprised if this patient was still alive after 12 months?’). We hypothesized that answering these SQs would trigger them to make a multidimensional care plan.

Methods

26 Slovenian GPs, randomized into 4 groups, were invited to write a care plan for each of the four patients described in case vignettes (2 oncologic, 1 organ failure and 1 frailty case). GPs in group 1 were only asked to write a care plan for each patient. GPs in group 2 answered SQ1 and GPs in groups 3 and 4 answered SQ1 and SQ2 before writing the care plan. The type and number of PC aspects mentioned in the respective care plans were quantified into a numeric RADboud ANTicipatory (RADIANT) score.

Results

Mean RADIANT scores in groups 1-4 were 2.2, 3.6, 2.5 and 3.1, respectively. When comparing the different vignettes, vignette B (terminal oncologic patient) scored best (3.6). Mean RADIANT scores in groups 3 and 4 were slightly higher for GPs who would be surprised compared to GPs who would not be surprised if the patient was still alive in 12 months.

Conclusion

The combined SQs were considered helpful in the early identification of patients in need of PC in Slovenian general practice.

Open access
Effects of perinatal factors on body mass index and physical fitness of school-age children

Abstract

Objective

To examine the effects of various maternal and neonatal perinatal factors on the child’s body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness at school-age.

Methods

Data from two registries, the SLOfit database (a national surveillance system of children’s motor and physical development) and Slovenian National Perinatal Information System (NPIS) were analysed. Perinatal data for 2,929 children born in 2008 were linked to results of SLOfit testing of these children in 2016. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the potential relationship between several perinatal factors (very preterm birth, birth mass, maternal age, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes, parity, plurality, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, mode of delivery, presentation, Apgar score at 5 minutes, and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)) and child’s BMI or child’s physical fitness index (PFI) at the age of eight years. We also included child’s school grade and maternal educational level in the analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Children born to mothers with lower pre-pregnancy BMI and higher education had lower BMI and higher PFI (p<0.001) at school-age. Physical fitness was also inversely associated with nulliparity (p<0.001) and NICU admission (p=0.020).

Conclusions

Among all perinatal factors studied, higher maternal education and lower pre-pregnancy BMI seem to be the most significant determinants of child’s BMI and physical fitness at school-age.

Open access
Management of frailty at individual level – clinical management: Systematic literature review

Abstract

Introduction

To deliver quality management of a frail individual, a clinician should understand the concept of frailty, be aware of its epidemiology and be able to screen for frailty and assess it when it is present, and, finally, to recommend successful interventions.

Methodology

A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Cinahl and UpToDate. The criterion in selecting the literature was that articles were published in the period from 2002 to 2017. From 67432 initial hits, 27 publications were selected.

Results

Useful interventions to address frailty are supplementation of vitamin D, proper nutrition, multicomponent training, home-based physiotherapy and comprehensive geriatric assessment, particularly when performed in geriatric wards.

Conclusion

Comprehensive geriatric assessment is an effective way to decrease frailty status especially when performed in geriatric wards. Multicomponent physical training and multidimensional interventions (physical training, nutrition, vitamin D supplementation and cognitive training) are effective measures to reduce frailty.

Open access
Movement activity determination with health-related variables of university students in Kosice

Abstract

Introduction

There is currently a strong scientific evidence about the negative health consequences of physical inactivity. One of the potential tools for promoting physical activity at the institutional level of the Ecological model is to create conditions and settings that would enable pupils, students and employees engage in some form of physical activity. However, physical activities as a subject are being eliminated from the study programs at Slovak universities. The purpose of the study was to find current evidence about the level of structured physical activity and health-related variables in university students in Košice.

Material and methods

The sample consisted of 1,993 or, more precisely, 1,398 students who attended two universities in Košice. To collect data, students completed a questionnaire and were tested for body height, body weight, circumferential measures and percentage body fat.

Results

The university students did not sufficiently engage in a structured physical activity. A large number of students had either low or high values of percentage body fat and BMI and high WHR values.

Conclusions

Our findings have shown that the research into physical activity of university students should receive more attention.

Open access
The prevalence of elevated blood pressure in a sample of slovene children and adolescents: a pilot study

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of prehypertensive and elevated blood pressure in the hypertensive range (elevated BP) and obtain some anthropometric measures in Slovene children and adolescents.

Methods

In the cross-sectional study lasting one year, we measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers, as well as height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences in schools. Data from regular check-ups (oscillometric measurements) were also added to increase the sample size. Participants were 2-19 years old. For statistical analysis, we used two-sided multivariate analysis of variance, Pearson’s r, and chi-squared test.

Results

From altogether 1594 participants, 723 (45.4%) were boys and 871 (54.6%) girls. The prevalence of elevated BP on a single oscillometric blood-pressure measurement was 12.0% (95% CI: 10.3 to 13.9), and an additional 13.9% (95% CI: 12.0 to 15.9) had prehypertensive BP. In Riva-Rocci measurements, elevated BP was present in only 7.1% (95% CI: 4.9 to 10.1) and prehypertensive BP additionally in 3.9% (95% CI: 2.4 to 6.4) in comparison to oscillometric measurements, which showed higher prevalence. Importantly, overweight participants had a 1.75 times greater relative risk for prehypertensive BP (95% CI: 1.22 to 2.53; p<0.01). Obesity carried a 1.79 times greater relative risk (95% CI: 1.22 to 2.63; p<0.01) for BP outside of the normotensive BP range.

Conclusion

Arterial hypertension is becoming an important public health problem, especially due to the childhood obesity. It seems to concern also Slovene young population with prevalence of elevated BP at around 7.1% after a single auscultatory BP measurement.

Open access
Risk of potential exposure incident in non-healthcare workers in contact with infectious and municipal waste

Abstract

Introduction

The proper classification of sharp and infectious waste in situ by the healthcare workers is an important measure of prevention of sharps and other exposure incidents in non-healthcare workers, who handle such waste. The aim was to examine the practice of classifying sharp and infectious waste in family and dental practices.

Methods

An analysis of 50 bags of infectious and 50 bags of municipal waste from five family and five dental practices for five days in October 2016 at the Health centre Osijek.

Results

Healthcare workers in 70% of the practices deposited sharps in infectious waste. In 56% of infectious waste bags, sharp object were found. More risky bags of infectious waste were produced by family practices (64%), but with no significant differences in relation to dental practices (48%), (P=0.143). Disposing of infectious into municipal waste was the case in 90% of the practitioners, where in 60% of municipal waste bags, infectious waste was disposed. Dental practices produced more risky bags of municipal waste (76%) in relation to family practices (44%), but with no significant difference (P=0.714).

Conclusions

The results of this research point to importance of performing audits of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste to reduce the risks of injury to non-healthcare workers who come into contact with the said waste. Given results could be used for framing written protocols of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste that should be visibly available in family and dental practices and for education of healthcare workers.

Open access
Slovenian version of the european deprivation index at municipal level

Abstract

Introduction

Ecological deprivation indices belong to essential instruments for monitoring and understanding health inequalities. Our aim was to develop the SI-EDI, a newly derived European Deprivation Index for Slovenia. We intend to provide researchers and policy-makers in our country with a relevant tool for measuring and reducing the socioeconomic inequalities in health, and even at a broader level.

Methods

Data from the European survey on Income and Living Conditions and Slovenian national census for the year 2011 were used in the SI-EDI construction. The concept of relative deprivation was used where deprivation refers to unmet need(s), which is caused by lack of all kinds of resources, not only material. The SI-EDI was constructed for 210 Slovenian municipalities. Its geographical distribution was compared to the distribution of two existing deprivation scores previously applied in health inequality research in Slovenia.

Results

There were 36% of adults recognized as deprived in Slovenia in 2011. SI-EDI was calculated using 10 census variables that were associated with individual deprivation. A clear east-to-west gradient was detected with the most deprived municipalities in the eastern part of the country. The two existing deprivation scores correlate significantly with the SI-EDI.

Conclusions

A new deprivation index, the SI-EDI, is grounded on the internationally established scientific concept, can be replicated over time and, crucially, provides an account of the socioeconomic and cultural particularities of the Slovenian population. The SI-EDI could be used by the stakeholders and the governmental and nongovernmental sectors in Slovenia, with the goal of better understanding health inequalities in Slovenia.

Open access
Specialty training in family medicine in Montenegro – An evaluation of the programme by the first generation of trainees

Abstract

Introduction

One of the aims of health care reform in Montenegro is to strengthen primary care. An important step forward is the implementation of specialty training in family medicine (FM). The aim of this article is to evaluate the implementation of specialty training in family medicine in Montenegro, regarding the content, structure and methods, by the first generation of trainees and the coordinator of the training.

Methods

A questionnaire was sent by mail in July and August 2017 to all 26 eligible trainees who started specialty training in 2013. Twenty-two of the 26 trainees (84.6%) responded. The questionnaire consisted of closed and open-ended questions related to the evaluation of the training. A descriptive quantitative and qualitative analysis with predefined themes and a semi-structured interview with the coordinator were carried out.

Results

The process of training in FM was assessed positively by both trainees and the coordinator. The positive assessment included that the specialisation course offered modern design through modules and practice, and trainees both improved their existing knowledge and skills and acquired new ones necessary for everyday work. The coordinator emphasised the importance of the introduction of new teaching methods and formative assessment, the important role of mentors, and the involvement of Slovenian colleagues in the teaching process and supervision of the programme.

Conclusions

The implementation of speciality training in FM in Montenegro was successful. Several assessment methods were used that can be further developed in individual structured feedback, which could stimulate the continual improvement of trainees’ knowledge and competencies.

Open access
Analysis of the Breathing Air Production Process for Hyperbaric Purposes

Abstract

The quality of breathing air plays a key role in the safety of divers and hyperbaric facilities. Paradoxically, the change of regulations concerning quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the need for verification of the technical and laboratory bases used in their production and control. This article presents the results of research related to the rationalisation of the process of production and supply of breathing air for the purposes of hyperbaric oxygenation. The work was carried out using the SixSigma method.

Open access