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Summary

This article is an attempt to reconstruct the devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary at the beginning of the Polish state. Based on the liturgical books and the calendars from the 9th–11th centuries preserved in Polish archives, the form of the Marian devotion in the Poznań diocese was sought. Despite the lack of preserved monuments representing the oldest Polish diocese, it was established that the service to the Blessed Virgin Mary had a liturgical character. The four main feasts in honor of the Mother of God, celebrated in the Western Church, were celebrated in Poznań, too. An analysis of the oldest liturgical formularies preserved in Polish and Western archives did not yield satisfactory results. Based on the available monuments, it is not possible to determine the content of the formularies destined for Marian feasts celebrated in Poznań.

Summary

The paper reflects on the specificity of the translation of texts belonging to the religious and theological literature. Religious and theological texts have been translated for millennia, many of them — originating in the sphere of Judeo-Christianity — lie at the core of Western culture. Their translation, especially the translation of the Bible, was accompanied by theoretical reflection (see, for example, Jerome of Stridonium, Martin Luther or Eugene Nida), which permanently influenced the way of thinking about translation in general. The present study answers the question of how the translation of religious and theological texts differs from the translation of other texts and what the translator must or should take into account, translating religious and theological texts. The paper discusses, among others, the role of the word in Christianity, spiritual preparation, openness to the Holy Spirit, tradition and inculturation.

Summary

There are two purposes of this article: the first one — to clarify the meaning of the term ‘credibility of the Church in contemporary Poland’ from a theological perspective, and the second one — to describe the basic signs of such credibility and the difficulties they are facing. The article consists of three parts and a conclusion. The first part deals with the theological understanding of the Church’s credibility in contemporary Poland in the light of new researches and inspirations offered by Joseph Ratzinger’s ecclesiology and by the book Oblicza Kościoła katolickiego w Polsce. 1050. rocznica Chrztu [Features of the Catholic Church in Poland. The 1050th Anniversary of the Christening] (ed. by J. Mastej, K. Kaucha, P. Borto, Lublin 2016). The second part is focused on the signs of the Church’s credibility in Poland (sign of Peter, of the Apostolic Collegium, of unity, of holiness, of universality, of apostolicity, agapetological, praxeological, martyriological, and culture-creative), which started to be described about 25 years ago by Rev. Marian Rusecki, who was co-founder and the most excellent representative of the Lublin School of Fundamental Theology. The third part presents some new signs of the Church’s credibility in Poland according to the author of the article (charitable, staurological, resurrectional, paschal, anthropological-vocational, of freedom, of the priority of the Spirit and spiritual life, of peace and reconciliation, of protest, of the faith’s pureness). In the conclusion the author underlines the values of the semeiological method in describing and testing the credibility of the Church in contemporary Poland.

Summary

The subject-matter of the article is the issue of sanctity which the author considers in the context of the lives of seven men and one woman. All of them belong to the Poznań Church. Their heroic lives provide an opportunity to scrutinize contemporary culture, which is characterized by a process of disenchantment of the world, i.e. humanization of what formerly used to be divine, what belonged to God or led to Him. Today we witness a tendency to sanctify things human, things which are the work of man and enhance human pleasure, enjoyment of life and cheerful disposition… At the same time things divine and those that lead to God are dismissed or even forgotten.

Modern man has become increasingly autonomous. He no longer needs God seeing Him as unwanted or even redundant. Prayer, which animates saints, is now considered mere waste of time while obedience to God’s commandments is deemed ridiculous. This process also impacts our attitude to the saints. In Christian theology they are the teachers of the faith, witnesses of God and His truth. They are the good Samaritans that lift up those who fell, reminding them of their dignity received from God and encouraging them to go ahead to meet God. But many of our contemporaries, believers included, no longer perceive saints in this way. They do not expect from the saints lessons on life, but miracles in order to have a rich, healthy and happy life themselves. They look for miracle workers not witnesses and teachers of God’s truth, the prophets of a different world. As God’s witnesses the blessed and saints can “hold back” the process of disenchantment of the world and give the world a new eschatological dimension, the lost sacrum without which life on earth can change into a drama.

Summary

This paper elaborates upon the status of the Theology of the Body (TOB) among the philosophical and theological disciplines. The TOB is a relevant part of ecclesiastical reflection due to the modern cultural context. The genesis of the TOB is deeply rooted in social, political and economic development of the Western civilization after the Enlightenment and Positivism of the 19th c. The TOB is a part of theology which is a valid and necessary part of the human knowledge. The justification for the TOB comes from its subject matter, which is the human body. The human body transcends physical reality through its actions and points towards the invisible realm of the soul and morality. The TOB needs to be recognized as one of the ontological disciplines rather than a deontological one, only. The TOB can be categorized as a part of fundamental theology within systematic theology.

Summary

The article is a study of the theme of ‘heavenly homeland’ in St. Paul’s Letter to the Philippians 3:20 and in the writings of the French Carmelite St. Elisabeth of the Holy Trinity (1880–1906).

The first part is an exegesis of Phil 3:20. It consists of a description of the community in Philippi at the time when the Letter to the Philippians was written; suggestion of a translation of Phil 3:17–21 into Polish; general presentation of the context Phil 3:20 and discussion of the meaning of the lexeme politeuma.

The second part presents eight writings of Elizabeth of the Holy Trinity (Letters 237; 241; 246; 249; 252; 258; 339; Spiritual Notes [originally Notes intimes] 16), in which she made reference to the thought included in Phil 3:20.

The mystic from Dijon, a faithful and eager pupil of Paul the Apostle drew profusely from his inspired thoughts not only for herself but also shared them with others, as evidenced by several references to Phil 3:20 in her writings. Her aim was to strengthen those closest to her (and herself) in following here on Earth the way which would be their common way in eternity.

Summary

An important duty of man is proper communication and relativity to creation. This is due to the unique situation of our being “in the middle” and our vocation to go out “in the opposite direction”. However, personal faith in God becomes a particularly ennobling factor, as it somehow deepens the human desire for closeness and solidarity with the whole created reality. Through true openness to the visible world, we learn more about the relationship between the individual and the community, as well between the human community and the whole creation. Ultimately, we are trying to take up the challenge of dealing responsibly with nature as a unique value today and with the right to continue in the future.

Summary

For all readers of the text of the Lumen Gentium constitution of the Second Vatican Council during this event, and also immediately afterwards, it seemed that the document focused solely on the explanation of the Church from the perspective of Christ. Some of the conciliar observers, especially the Orthodox theologians, brought up criticism that the reflection of the Council was marked by a Christomonism. This study presents the question of the pneumatological implications of the ecclesiology contained in the Lumen Gentium constitution from the perspective of Yves Congar’s theological thought. As the analysis of the undertaken research will show, the answer of the French theologian not only provides an essential response to the objection of Christomonism based on a direct commitment of this theologian to the co-writing of Lumen Gentium as early as March 1963, but it also gives a thorough insight into the subject-matter referring to his theological achievements already before and mainly after the Council. The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church has a distinct pneumatological dimension. The theology contained therein is related to all the theses on the subject as they were formulated by Yves Congar in 1973.

Summary

In the investigated period of the years 1768–1793, the Poznań diocese belonged to the Gniezno metropolitan area and comprised the territory of more than 28 000 square kilometers, divided into two parts — Great Poland and Masovia. Poznań bishops resided mainly in Warsaw, in the Masovian part. The diocesan office in the years 1768–1780 was held by Andrew Stanislaus Młodziejowski and in the years 1780–1793 by Anthony Onuphrius Okęcki, both involved in state issues, including the post of crown chancellors. Pontifical duties were performer mainly by bishops suffragan, while the diocese was managed by general curates. The cathedral chapter in Poznań, constituted by 10 prelates and 23 canons, was the elite of the clergy. In addition to that, there were other bodies of clergy like curates, penitentiaries, two missionary colleges, rorantists and altarists. Collegiate chapters existed in three churches in Poznań, as well as in Warsaw, Środa Wielkopolska (Great Poland), Szamotuły and Czarnków. The area of the diocese was divided in to four archdeaconships — Poznań, Śrem, Pszczew and Warsaw — each divided into deaconships, amounting to the number of twenty nine. Within the territory of the diocese there were 466 parish churches and a significant number of churches and chapels of various character, with an abundance of priests. The clergymen derived mainly from the townspeople, and delegates of the bishop visiting the parishes positively assessed their moral conduct. In 1772 there were 78 male monasteries with 1549 monks and 17 female monasteries in the whole diocese.

Abstract

W artykule przedstawiono pogląd, że sumienie jest zasadniczym czynnikiem konstytuującym naturę ludzką. Sumienie podzielone jest na wspólne wszystkim ludziom i niezmienne sumienie uniwersalne oraz sumienie indywidualne, które jest kształtowane w każdym człowieku przez czynniki wewnętrzne i zewnętrzne. Pogląd ten porównany jest z nowotestamentowym poglądem na sumienie zaprezentowanym przede wszystkim przez apostoła Pawła.