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Open access

Thomas Nygren and Mona Guath

Abstract

In this study we investigate the abilities to determine the credibility of digital news among 483 teenagers. Using an online survey with a performance test we assess to what extent teenagers are able to determine the credibility of different sources, evaluate credible and biased uses of evidence, and corroborate information. Many respondents fail to identify the credibility of false, biased and vetted news. Respondents who value the importance of credible news seem to hold a mindset helping them to determine credibility better than other respondents. In contrast, respondents self-reporting to be good at searching information online and who find information online trustworthy are not very good at civic online reasoning. Our findings, which may be linked to theories of disciplinary literacy, science curiosity and overconfidence, provide a basis for further research of how to better understand and support civic online reasoning in classrooms and society.

Open access

Picturing two modernities

Ecological modernisation and the media imagery of climate change

Jarkko Kangas

Abstract

The article analyses the discursive roles of two prominent themes of the habitual media climate change imagery: “the smokestack” and “renewable energy”. Through semiotic analysis of connotation and thematic content analysis of images in The Guardian, the article argues that the constant reliance on these two themes and the particular ways of representing them sustain a definition of climate change as a technological dualism. The article argues further that this dualism of “dirty” and “clean” technologies, as the predominant way of visualising direct causes of and responses to climate change, articulates ecological modernisation discourse and its central storyline of progressing from “defiling growth” toward “sustainable development” (Hajer, 1995). The article suggests (1) further research on conventional thematic imageries as a meaningful approach to studying policy discourses and (2) the relevance of applying concepts of policy research to understanding and challenging the political bearings of prominent visualisations.

Open access

Logics of the Icelandic Hybrid Media System

Snapchat and media-use before the 2016 and 2017 Althing elections

Birgir Guðmundsson

Abstract

The increased importance of social media platforms and network media logic merging with traditional media logic are a trademark of modern hybrid systems of political communication. This article looks at this development through the media-use by politicians before the 2016 and 2017 parliamentary elections in Iceland. Aggregate results from candidate surveys on the use and perceived importance of different media forms are used to examine the role of the new platform Snapchat in relation to other media, and to highlight the dynamics of the hybrid media system in Iceland. The results show that Snapchat is exploited more by younger politicians and those already using social media platforms. However, in spite of this duality between old and new media, users of traditional platforms still use new media and vice versa. This points to the existance of a delicate operational balance between different media logics, that could change as younger politicians move more centre stage.

Open access

Covering Regional Blind Spots

Commentary journalism in the regional public sphere

Birgit Røe Mathisen and Lisbeth Morlandstø

Abstract

A significant trend within journalism is the growth of the commentary genre. Another trend is the regional withdrawal within news journalism. News media are closing down district offices, which raises concerns over media shadows and blind spots in coverage. This article addresses both of these trends through a case analysis of the Norwegian newspaper Nordlys. Launching its commentary innovation Nordnorsk debatt, Nordlys aims to exceed its geographical area within these columns, facilitating a regional public sphere in the Arctic region. The article discusses the role of opinion-based journalism in the regional public sphere, within the theoretical perspective of media ecology and institutional theory. We argue that covering the regional level in society is a vital part of journalism’s institutional role. In addition, from an ecological perspective, the role of being a regional voice is important in the national public sphere.

Open access

J. O. Ogbe

Abstract

The study was meant to explore the readiness of primary schools toward school health emergencies in Delta State, Nigeria. The method was the use of exploratory / descriptive study design of the expost facto method. Three variables of personnel, equipment and environment were used, while three research questions and three hypotheses were used as a guide. Simple questionnaire of Yes or No was used to generate data. Descriptive statistics of frequency count, percentages and paired t-test statistics were used to analysed the data. It was found that personnel for school health emergency were not available in schools and were found to be negatively significant at −30.97 (p = 0.05) and had negative correlation of −1.00. Equipment was found to be available (at least, at the level of First Aid Box) and found significant at paired t - test value of 19.01 (p = 0.05) while environment for school health emergency was not available and negatively significant at paired t – test value of -111.891 (P = 0.05). The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta state for health emergencies is still at its infancy. The study concluded that readiness of primary schools in Delta State is still at its infancy. It was recommended among others Government and stakeholders in primary school education should provide at least one school health Nurse in every primary school and school health teachers be provided with opportunity of training in First Aid and school health emergency.

Open access

Saxhide Mustafa, Fatos Berani and Hajdin Berisha

Abstract

Organizations and managers during their organizational activities, not rarely face different conflicts. Managers, depending on their gender, use different ways to resolve these conflicts while this reflects on their subordinates. The purpose of this study is to analyse the most common approaches applied to resolve conflicts in organizations in Kosovo and the impact of gender on the choice of style to handle conflicts. The study employs a quantitative approach whilst convenience sampling method is used for the purpose of selecting respondents. The study is conducted in ten largest companies in Kosovo in which hundred employees and fifty managers were included. A structured questionnaire is used to collect primary data and necessary tests were conducted through SPSS. Results reveal that managers use the integrative style more than other styles during the conflict management process; gender partially affects the choice of the style and the style of conflict management affects the likelihood of managers among employees. The study suggests that the field of conflict management among organizations in Kosovo needs more academic research.

Open access

Joseph N. Bayeh and Georgios C. Baltos

Abstract

The Peace of Westphalia signed in 1648 signaled the beginning of the modern international system of states. International relations (IR) theory identifies this treaty as the founder of the principle of political sovereignty whereby each nation-state has full control over its territory and domestic affairs, thus it is the beginning of an international system of states. The latter is based on the sanctity and inviolability of interstate borders as its main defining feature. This paper investigates the recent developments in international relations and their significance to the concept of borders in IR theory; on the one hand, a “clash of civilizations” thesis assumes that new “fault lines” borders among civilizations of, mainly, different religions are taking precedence over traditional territorial borders of nation-states, while, on the other hand, a rise in conservative nationalism and, possibly, protectionism, over the traditionally liberal West reasserts the primacy of territorial borders in IR. In particular, this study examines whether such developments signal a paradigm shift in IR theory that may necessitate revisiting certain fundamentals of mainstream respective theories.

Open access

Shpresa Tolaj Gjonbalaj and Rregjina Gokaj

Abstract

This article tries to give a vivid frame of the historical background of the development of figurative art in both sides of Albanian boarders, thus that of Kosovo and Albania, as a unique belonging of the same national features. It is represented through a historical and theoretical background so that to show the roots and the layers of the development of art in Europe, which is in all senses the impact Albanian art, but not only has taken from. Pure and concrete examples of Albanian painters of the very first generation and as an inspiration to what follows later, are given to demonstrate the will and need of Albanian society to cultivate artistic tastes.

Open access

Kelechi Elijah Nnamani, Chukwuemeka Enyiazu, Ikemefuna Sunday Nwoke, Ebere Dorothy Ochiaka, Joy Nkiru Agbo and Obinna Augustine Ovaga

Abstract

Given the low level of economic development and the attendant burgeoning social vices at local level in Nigeria, this study illuminates on the strategic framework for sustainable wealth creation in Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. The study argues that rather than the constant reliance on the ‘one size fits all’ analysis which has fundamentally blurred the minds of development experts and policymakers, greater emphasis should be placed on context-driven and specific studies. Among other things, the study notes that context-driven studies would enable each local government identify problems peculiar to it and evolve problem-solving measures consistent with local realities and demands. In the context of the present study, we share the optimism that Odukpani Local Government Council should prioritize wealth creation as basis for stimulating economic growth and development in the area. The study relies on triangulation of data involving interviews with key stakeholders, on-the-spot observation, participatory rural appraisal and information derived from relevant literature.