‘Indebtedness’ of the tribes increases their woe. They live in inaccessible terrain with inadequate infrastructure. Living on subsistence, majority of them depend on borrowings to finance their budget deficit. Being in debt tends to become perpetual with several drastic consequences like being subject to exploitation through bonded labour, losing of assets or transfer of ownership of land and other assets under several pre-text to non-tribal or private lenders, etc. This indebtedness itself has other adverse social impacts on the tribes like the low level of education, ill-health, employment status etc. which has a spiral relationship with indebtedness. This study seeks to identify the various facets of their indebtedness from close quarters, find the extent of absorption of institutional credit by these tribes and identify the gap in their likely absorption perpetuating their indebtedness. It is based on the analysis of primary data collected through structured schedules directly from the respondents. It has been analysed using relevant statistical and econometric tools. It finds the perpetual aspect of tribes' indebtedness due to various ingrained social, cultural and economic factors. It suggests ways to end this perpetuity and amalgamate them on the path of development.
One of the most common forms of evidence used by the Public Prosecutor in a courtroom to prove a case is DNA evidence. The DNA evidence process started when the police collected the physical evidence relevant to the alleged offence at the crime scene. The collected evidence will then usually be sent to the Department of Chemistry Malaysia for DNA analysis. The chemist will extract the DNA from the relevant physical evidence by using specific techniques. The outcome of the analysis will be used to complete the investigation of the case. Being an independent organization, the Chemistry Department strives to provide impartial forensic science analysis. Thus, from the analysis, sometimes DNA evidence does not necessarily implicate the accused with the alleged offence but may also disclose the involvement of a third party in the alleged offence that may cast doubt on the prosecution’s case. This can be seen in the Federal Court’s case of Public Prosecutor v Hanif Basree Abdul Rahman  4 CLJ 1. The evidence will then be presented by the prosecution before the court to assist judges in making the right decisions. This indicates the important role played by an expert in the court decision making process. In this context, questions always arise as to the probative value of DNA evidence given by experts in the courtroom. Can the court convict a person solely on DNA evidence? This article focuses on the position of DNA experts in Malaysia under section 45 of the Evidence Act 1950. It was found that although the DNA evidence is given by the experts, the probative value depends on the nature of the evidence itself.
This study explored sexual health education (SHE) through the lens of public school educators in the United States of America. It examined their comfort levels and the barriers educators faced by asking, “How comfortable are educators when communicating sexual health topics to adolescents for them to build a foundation to become sexually healthy adults?” The qualitative, phenomenological study included 11 public school teachers among three school districts in the State of Indiana. Conducting intimate, face-to-face interviews with participants advanced and expanded interdisciplinary research. Educators shared their beliefs and values regarding SHE instruction and levels of sexuality comfort. Three findings emerged from the data that can contribute to research in the fields of education, public policy, public health, and communication: (1) An inclusive sexual health education program can provide educators with more sexuality comfort, (2) Teacher training and instructional materials relate to an educator’s sexuality comfort level and willingness to communicate SHE, and (3) An educator’s level of sexuality comfort may likely increase if engaged in SHE decision-making policies. At the time of the study, State policies prohibited comprehensive education, although participants preferred a more inclusive approach to teaching, SHE. Additionally, the concept of sexuality comfort (1984) was reconstructed and revised. This study offered an in-depth exploration into a topic - sexual health - that affects all individuals and established a foundation for future qualitative and quantitative studies.
The relevance of the research is determined by the contemporary interest to the intercultural communication in the context of the anthropocentric paradigm of modern linguistics. The article is devoted to the analysis of the peculiarities of communicative interaction between the citizens of Germany and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland. The systematic analysis of studies on the communicative styles of Germans living in Germany and Switzerland allowed us to determine their main features. The study showed that the communication between the analyzed ethno-cultural communities is complicated by a number of linguistic and culturally-conditioned problems. While the inhabitants of Germany demonstrate the characteristic features of the low-context culture, the communicative style of the German-speaking Swiss is mitigative as they are referred to the high-context culture. The socio-cultural differences in the mutual perception of the analyzed ethnosocial groups lead to the formation of stereotypes and clichés which influence the intercultural communication. The materials of the paper may be used in comparative cultural linguistics, country and cultural studies.
The paper presents the scientific idea that the problems of sustainable socio-economic development of the country as a whole and such an important segment as public procurement in particular, may be successfully addressed provided the theoretical validation, development and implementation in practice of training of the procurement specialists of technologies for development of creative thinking. Creative thinking, as one of the leading digital competencies, contributes to the solution of the problem of labour market saturation with the specialists ready to address the task of creating a new technological basis for the development of economy, social sphere, etc. Professional competences of procurement specialists built with reliance on creative thinking help to solve every day professional tasks at a new qualitative level.
The regulation of legal relations in the civil service has undergone a radical reform in recent years. Legislative acts regulating the working relationships of civil servants and strict rules regarding the purity and integrity of the civil servant figure have been adopted, the lack of which results in the interruption of relations in the civil service. In 2015, the law on the integrity of persons elected, appointed or exercising public functions entered into force, the purpose of which is to guarantee public confidence in the functioning of the institutions, by preventing the election or appointment, or leaving the public function of such persons who have been convicted or to whom security measures have been taken or have been convicted by a non-final decision for committing crimes under this law. Based on the provisions of this law and the provisions of the law on the status of a civil servant, when public institutions find that a person is convicted, or to whom a security measure is taken, decides to terminate relations in the civil service. This paper will analyze the cases of termination of employment relations in the civil service due to criminal punishment, the types of criminal punishment which constitute a cause for dismissal, the application of conditions and criteria and the way public institutions interpret the legal acts in force, with the aim of addressing the problems of law enforcement in practice and giving concrete recommendations on issues to be ascertained.
The digital society having gained quite a momentum in the Russian Federation in the recent decade has brought along some new trends in “problems-shaping” not only for the producing, but also for the non-producing strata of the population. The new “non-producing classes” get formed in a situation of new historical conditions the coordinates of which cover the entire global world, and it can be spoken definitely that problems of the Russian society are determined, among other things, by trends of the “world information community”, with the former being a part of it nowadays. The paper outlines the main vectors of the problem of socialization of the disabled children in the contemporary Russian society within the context of information economy forming. Particularities of integration of children having disabilities are shown in the logic of development of the world social inequality processes based on the “digital divide” approaches. Proceeding from the Russian statistical materials, some suppositions are made about possible negative development scenarios of the present-day cohort of children having functional limitations who can become outsiders of the digital revolution and man the strata of non-producing classes if there are no state programs, education strategies, pedagogical personnel and focused work with parents.
This paper examines organizational support to the long-term care system which consists of the regulatory, infrastructural, financial, staffing, methodological and information technology support. The authors have analyzed the data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation reflecting the count of pensioners receiving the old-age pensions and pension average size, as well as the current state of social service organizations in the Russian Federation. The analysis results were used to validate a necessity to introduce the system of long-term care for senior citizens and people with disabilities. It was determined that it is possible to create infrastructure and financial support to enable functioning of this system by implementing the public-private partnership projects. The authors proposed measures for efficient implementation and functioning of the long-term care system in the Russian Federation. The undertaken analysis brought us to the conclusion that in the Russian Federation there is a need to take certain measures aimed at: development of social infrastructure facilities for the disabled and senior citizens; construction of new modern infrastructure; active engagement of socially committed non-profit organizations for the provision of social and medical services included in the long-term care for senior citizens.
This paper examines the impact of m-learning as an innovative tool that is still in its infancy in many countries, but that can significantly contribute to effective teaching and learning in the context of the digital age. Based on the theoretical principles of learning, the uses of m-learning are reviewed. To provide complete insights into its potential adoption in higher education institutions in countries such as Mauritius and Nigeria, the various emerging issues such as technical issues, usability issues, content security and copyright issues as well as issues relating to privacy and cyber bullying are discussed. The paper suggests some of the future trends in the adoption of m-learning, but it concluded that it may not be successful due to other challenges that are typical to many countries in Africa. African countries are faced with context-bound and technological constraints that are hindering the leaners of higher education institutions to benefit from the learning advantages that they may get to improve their learning and for the countries to give more access to higher education through the use of open education that may be technologically enhanced.
Residential and neighbourhood satisfaction are important indicators of housing quality and conditions which affect individual’s quality of life. This study which was conducted in 2018 evaluated the level of satisfaction in terms building features in six completed and occupied housing estates in Benin city, namely the federal owned estate at Ikpoba hill, and state owned housing estates located at Ugbowo, Oregbeni, Oluku, Evboriaria and Iyekogba. Data were collected from 1000 heads of households and analysed using descriptive statistical tools, categorical regression and factor analyses. The findings showed that the building features significantly affect the level of resident’s satisfaction. The RSI scores for the relatively old estates; EDPA, Ikpoba hill and Oregbeni and are on the dissatisfied region (RSI: 1.1-2.00) while for the relatively newer ones; Andrew Wilson and Oluku, the RSI scores are on the satisfied level (RSI=. 3.1-4.00) with building features features. The study recommends that the design for future low cost housing should consider the family sizes of average Nigerian family, kitchen design that make use of cooking gas, kerosene and outdoor kitchen possible. The paper concludes that the buildings should maintain an acceptable quality standard in terms of functional spaces, structural stability and aesthetics as this will result to resident's housing satisfaction.