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Robert J. Sternberg

Abstract

Tests of creativity can meaningfully predict academic and other outcomes in schooling, over and above the prediction provided by standardized tests. However, for such prediction to occur, the tests must measure creativity in a meaningful way and success in school must in some way be linked to creative performance. We should change our tests and schooling to require the creativity that is so important for a world in which rapid change is the norm rather than the exception.

Open access

Agata Groyecka

Abstract

This commentary attempts to address the question of “Why creativity matters?” from the perspective of social psychology, by pointing out processes, which promote creativity while diminishing prejudices. I argue that through enhancing creativity, stereotyping can be reduced which can translate to the further improvement of intergroup relations. The common correlates of low prejudices and creativity supporting this hypothesis, are presented in this paper and comprise: (1) cognitive flexibility, (2) openness to experience and (3) perspective taking. Further, I invoke the existing literature regarding the link between schema-inconsistencies and creativity, which highlights the interrelatedness of these processes, but views creativity as an outcome, rather than a tool for social change. The assumed relationship can be seen as an opening to numerous future research paths, as it can give rise to various detailed questions from the points of view of basic and applied psychology.

Open access

James C. Kaufman

Abstract

There were four broad takeaways from the commentaries by the distinguished contributors. First, there was a caution on focusing too much on the positive outcomes. Second, there were several important considerations noted that can enrich the discussion. Third, people made a strong case for revisiting old outcomes with new methods and theories. Finally, there were suggestions for “new” positive outcomes that creativity may predict. I build on these and my own thoughts to offer an outline to cover a (hopefully expandable) list of potential outcomes. I end with a call for open commentaries to be considered for a future special section in this journal.

Open access

Emanuel Jauk and Natia Sordia

Abstract

Kaufman (2018) calls for a research agenda on outcomes of creativity. Despite its many conceivable positive consequences, we focus on narcissism as a potentially less socially desirable outcome of creative accomplishment in this commentary. Evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests a systematic link between different indicators of creativity and narcissism. We argue that - irrespective of methodological challenges associated with this research - it seems indeed plausible that creativity is associated with narcissism. The link is presumably strongest in individuals who engage in creativity for recognition motives. Narcissistic strivings might ignite creative endeavors, and positive social feedback for creative accomplishments might fuel narcissism. While more research needs to be done to understand the causal nature of the effects, the available evidence points to narcissism as a socially undesirable aspect of creativity which is not commonly discussed.

Open access

Hanna Jakubowicz Batoréo

Abstract

It has been defended since Gibbs (1994) that in proper contexts people mostly use the metaphorical asset of a message rather than its literal meaning, which means that we tend to express ourselves metaphorically and that conceptual metaphors and metonymies are features of communicative interaction. In the present paper we discuss the notion of metaphorical competence (Aleshtar & Dowlatabadi, 2014: 1895) in the process of language acquisition and learning of a (multilingual) speaker in a multilingual context. Based on previous studies by Sinha and Jansen (2004), Kövecses (2005), Palmer & Sharifian (2007), Gibbs & Colston (2012) and Sharifian (2015), among others, we postulate that research in the area should be centred not exclusively on Language but on interaction in a triangle Cognition - Language - Culture, We defend the way one conceptualises the world is based on bodily experience, and is mediated by culture (cf. Yu, 2003, 2009; Batoréo, 2017a). In this study we present research from different language backgrounds both occidental (European Portuguese, English and Polish) and oriental ones (Mandarin Chinese). It focuses on conceptualization of emotions (e.g., emotional expression of feeling hungry) and moral values (e.g. courage). The analysis shows that it implies culture anchorage and/or physiological and cultural embodiment. We defend that conceptual appropriateness and metaphor awareness play a fundamental role in the acquisition of figurative language (cf. Doiz & Elizari, 2013), which is at least partially motivated, and thus can be object of insightful learning (cf. Boers et al., 2004).

Open access

Baptiste Barbot

Abstract

In this brief commentary to Kaufman’s call for a “new agenda for positive outcomes” of creativity research, I emphasize how the broad construct of “identity” qualifies as such an outcome. While doing so, I challenge the issue of directionality (predictor vs. outcome) of creativity in relation to relevant correlates by outlining the influence of epistemological position and publication bias in directional interpretations of correlational findings. Through illustrations of various levels of relationships between creativity and identity, I also urge creativity researchers to be more explicit regarding how “generic” creativity is being operationalized in their study, so that more targeted hypotheses regarding the relationship between distinct aspects of creativity and such positive out-come variables may be formulated.

Open access

Ruth A. Berman

Abstract

The study traces the developmental route in acquisition and use of infinitives (e.g., lišon ‘to sleep’, le-exol ‘to-eat’, la-asot ’to-do’) in Hebrew as a first language, proceeding from the initial, “pre-grammatical“ emergence of linguistic forms among toddlers to structure-based knowledge and proficient use of the same devices in adolescence. Analysis involves a varied data-base of L1 oral Hebrew usage in: parent-child interactions of children aged 1;6 to 3;0 years; elicited storybook-based narratives of preschoolers; and personal-experience narratives and expository talks of schoolchildren, adolescents, and adults. Findings show that infinitives constitute an interesting test-case for examining the route from initial emergence via acquisition to maturely proficient command of a given subsystem in L1. Infinitival structures in Modern Hebrew, a language with an impoverished system of nonfinite verbs and lacking in auxiliaries of the kind common in Standard Average European, reveal a long developmental path, showing increasing complexity at all levels of language use: morphological form, types of syntactic constructions, semantic content, and discursive function, the latter primarily for the purpose of achieving textual connectivity.

Open access

Ronald A. Beghetto and Maciej Karwowski

Abstract

How can creativity be encouraged in schools and what are the educational consequences of doing so? We address this question from a creative learning perspective. Specifically, we open by discussing how this question can be approached from at least two different perspectives: one that positions creativity and academic learning as competing goals and another that conceptualizes these goals as compatible. We discuss how a creative learning perspective helps to reframe this question and clarify the educational consequences of doing so. We close by briefly outlining five considerations for promoting favorable outcomes with respect to encouraging creativity in schools and classrooms.

Open access

James C. Kaufman

Abstract

Despite an ongoing surge of interest in creativity (both in academia and the public eye), it is essential that researchers focus on why creativity matters. Studies that empathize variables that help increase creativity are absolutely valuable, but I argue that need more work on how creativity can lead to positive outcomes. Much of the existing literature examines how creativity can improve school or work performance – which it does. Yet when these studies are compared with similar ones on conscientiousness, it is hard to argue that increasing creativity is the best way to succeed in school or work (at least using traditional metrics). I argue that as a field, we need to expand our ideas about how creativity can be beneficial. I end with an open call for suggestions.

Open access

Vlad Petre Glăveanu

Abstract

In this reply to Kaufman’s paper “Creativity’s Need for Relevance in Research and Real Life” I argue, from a sociocultural and pragmatist standpoint, that creativity matters because it captures the agentic, flexible, open and emergent side of human existence while, at the same time, helping us build, maintain, and transform the societies we live in.