Przemysław Stanisz, Jerzy Cetnar and Mikołaj Oettingen
The highest efficiency in the usage of nuclear energy resources can be implemented in fast breeder reactors of generation IV. It is achieved thanks to the ability of consuming minor actinides (MAs) in energy production. One of the options to use this benefit is full recycling of MAs to close the nuclear fuel cycle. Monte Carlo burn up (MCB), an integrated burn-up calculation code, deals with the complexity of the burn-up process which is applied to the European Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (ELFR). MCB uses continuous energy representation of cross section and spatial effects of full core reactor model; however, it automatically calculates nuclide production in all possible reactions or decay channels. Multi-recycling of MAs can cause an intensified build-up of curium, berkelium and californium. Some of their isotopes are strong neutron emitters from spontaneous fission, which hinders fuel recycling. The implementation of a novel methodology for trajectory period folding allows us to trace the life cycle of crucial MAs from the beginning of the reactor life towards the state of adiabatic equilibrium. The result of the analysis performed is presented, showing the sources of strong contribution to the neutron production rate. The parametric sensitivity analysis method for selected nuclide reactions is applied, revealing sensitivity of transmutation chains for the production of neutron emitter isotopes.
Grażyna Przybytniak, Jarosław Sadło, Małgorzata Dąbrowska and Zbigniew Zimek
Calf skin collagen and three amino acids essential for its structure, namely glycine, L-proline and 4-hydroxyl-L-proline, were irradiated with gamma rays up to a dose of 10 kGy. Conversion of radicals over time or after thermal annealing to selected temperatures was monitored by X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Some experimental spectra were compared with signals simulated based on literature data from the electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) studies. The following phenomena were confirmed in the tested amino acids: abstraction of hydrogen atom (glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, collagen), deamination (glycine, hydroxyproline), decarboxylation (hydroxyproline). Chain scission at glycine residues, radiation-induced decomposition of side groups and oxidative degradation were observed in irradiated collagen. The decay of radicals in collagen saturated with water occurred at lower temperatures than in macromolecules having only structural water. The paramagnetic centres were the most stable in an oxygen-free atmosphere (vacuum). Radical processes deteriorated the structure of collagen; hence, radiation sterilization of skin grafts requires careful pros and cons analysis.
Hyam Nazmy Khalaf, Mostafa Y. A. Mostafa and Michael Zhukovsky
Particle size distribution is an important factor governing whether aerosols can be deposited in various respiratory tract regions in humans. Recently, electronic cigarette (EC), as the alternative of tobacco cigarette, has become increasingly popular all over the world. However, emissions from ECs may contribute to both indoor and outdoor air pollution; moreover, comments about their safety remain controversial, and the number of users is increasing rapidly. In this investigation, aerosols were generated from ECs and studied in the indoor air and in a chamber under controlled conditions of radon concentration. The generated aerosols were characterized in terms of particle number concentrations, size, and activity distributions by using aerosol diffusion spectrometer (ADS), diffusion battery, and cascade impactor. The range of ADS assessment was from 10−3 μm to 10 μm. The number concentration of the injected aerosol particles was between 40 000 and 100 000 particles/cm3. The distribution of these particles was the most within the ultrafine particle size range (0–0.2 μm), and the other particle were in the size range from 0.3 μm to 1 μm. The surface area distribution and the mass size distribution are presented and compared with bimodal distribution. In the radon chamber, all distributions were clearly bimodal, as the free radon decay product was approximately 1 nm in diameter, with a fraction of ~0.7 for a clean chamber (without any additional source of aerosols). The attached fraction with the aerosol particles from the ECs had a size not exceeding 1.0 μm.
Omid Khayat and Hossein Afarideh
Multiphase flow meters are used to measure the water-liquid ratio (WLR) and void fraction in a multiphase fluid stream pipeline. In the present study, a system of multiphase flow measurement has been designed by application of three thallium-doped sodium iodide scintillators and a radioactive source of 133Ba simulated by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) transport code. In order to capture radiations passing across the pipe, two direct detectors have been installed on opposite sides of the radioactive source. Another detector has been placed perpendicular to the transmission beam emitted from the 133Ba source to receive radiations scattered from the fluid flow. Simulation was done by the MCNP code for different volumetric fractions of water, oil, and gas phases for two types of flow regimes, namely, homogeneous and annular; training and validation data have been provided for the artificial neural network (ANN) to develop a computation model for pattern recognition. Depending on applications of the neural system, several structures of ANNs are used in the current paper to model the flow measurement relations, while the detector outputs are considered as the input parameters of the neural networks. The first, second, and third structures benefit from two, three, and five multilayer perceptron neural networks, respectively. Increasing the number of ANNs makes the system more complicated and decreases the available data; however, it increases the accuracy of estimation of WLR and gas void fraction. According to the results, the maximum relative difference was observed in the scattering detector. It was clear that transmission detectors would demonstrate the difference between the flow regimes as well. It is necessary to note that the error calculated by the MCNP simulator is <0.5% for the direct detectors (TR1 and TR2). Due to the difference between the data of the two flow regimes and the errors of data in the simulation codes of the MCNP, it was possible to separate these flow regimes. The effect of changing WLR on the efficiency for a constant void fraction confirms a considerable variance in the results of annular and homogeneous flows occurring in the scattering detector. There is a similar trend for the void fraction; hence, one can easily distinguish changes in efficiency due to the WLR. Analysis of the simulation results revealed that in the proposed structure of the multiphase flow meter and the computation model used for simulation, the two flow regimes are simply distinguishable.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) triples the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and contributes to more than 50% of HIV infections in other parts of the world. A deterministic mathematical model for the co-interaction of HIV and HSV-2 in a community, with all the relevant biological detail and poor HSV-2 treatment adherence is proposed. The threshold parameters of the model are determined and stabilities are analysed. Further, we applied optimal control theory. We proved the existence of the optimal control and characterized the controls using Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The controls represent monitoring and counselling of individuals infected with HSV-2 only and the other represent monitoring and counselling of individuals dually infected with HIV and HSV-2. Numerical results suggests that more effort should be devoted to monitoring and counselling of individuals dually infected with HIV and HSV-2 as compared to those infected with HSV-2 only. Overall, the study demonstrate that, though time dependent controls will be effective on controlling HIV cases, they may not be sustainable for certain time intervals.
David DeBruyne and Larry Sorensen
In this article, we have presented a parametric finite difference method, a numerical technique for the solution of two point boundary value problems in ordinary differential equations with mixed boundary conditions. We have tested proposed method for the numerical solution of a model problem. The numerical results obtained for the model problem with constructed exact solution depends on the choice of parameters. The computed result of a model problem suggests that proposed method is efficient.