In this work, copper doped nickel oxide as the thin films have been elaborated by a spin coating method, the nickel chloride hexahydrate (0.8M) and copper (II) chloride dehydrate (Cu/Ni = 0, 2.15, 4.3, 8.6 and 12.9 At.%) were used to prepare the Cu doped NiO thin films. The Cu doped NiO thin films were heated at a crystallization temperature of 600 °C with 2 h. The obtained thin films by spin coater method have a film thickness in the order of 400 nm. The prepared Cu doped NiO thin films have a polycrystalline with cubic structure (200) peak was observed. The optical property shows that the prepared thin films have a transmittance of about 70 %. The Cu doped NiO thin films have minimum bandgap energy is 3.85 eV at 12.9 at.%, the thin film deposited at 8.6 at.% has the highest value of Urbach energy is 425 meV. The Cu doped NiO thin films have a high electrical conductivity of 8.6 at% it is 7 (Ω.cm)−1. The prepared Cu doped NiO thin film was suitable for gas sensing applications due to the existing phase and higher electrical conductivity.
In the purpose of exploring new Heusler alloys with different magnetic applications, we have employed first principles calculations method within density functional theory. After checking the structural stability of X2YZ Heusler alloys (X = Fe, Co; Y =Zr, Mo and Z = Ge, Sb), we found that Cu2MnAl type structure is more favorable for most compounds except for X2MoGe and Co2MoSb, were the Hg2CuTi structure is energetically more stable. The trends in magnetic and electronic structures can be predicted by the structure types as well as the different kinds of hybridizations between the constituents. Among the two series only two compounds were identified to be true half metals with potential applications in spintronic devices. While one compound was classified as a nonmagnetic semiconductor with a small band gap. For the rest of materials, we found that the metallic behavior is dominant. These materials show possible interesting features in technical applications as well. The effect of distortion on the magnetic properties of Co2ZrGe and Fe2ZrSb showed that the half metallic character was preserved within a moderate range of volume changes, which makes it possible to grow these materials as thin films with modern techniques.
The allelopathic potential of essential oil extracts from Artemisia herba-alba Asso. was assessed on seed germination of nine weeds and two wheat varieties. The samples were collected from El-Rasfa région (Sétif, Algeria). The essential oil was extracted using hydrodistillation of aerial part and characterized using gaz chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. The bioassays with organic solvent (ethanol) were tested using four different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 µl/ml of oil/ethanol) on seed and seedling growth of the nine weeds and two wheat varieties. The yield obtained is 1.19%, and 36 compound had been identified. The main components are: camphor (28.58%), cis-thujone (22.03%), eucalyptol (11.65%) and trans-thujone (7.03%). The results of bioassays show that essential oil extracts has a significant effect on seed germination and seedling growth of the major weed tested and two wheat varieties. In conclusion, this study shows that the essential oil tested has an interesting allelopathic potential.
The experiment was conducted at the level of a pilot farm located in eastern Algeria under a humid bioclimatic stage, during two successive crop years. The study focused on a F1 generation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) consisting of twelve hybrids from a complete diallel cross between the two locals varieties (Saida and Tichedrett) and two other introduced varieties (Nadawa and Fouara). The aim was to determine the value of parental genotypes as genitors and to analyze their descendants, while evaluating the phenotypic variability of ten quantitative variables. Analysis of the variance revealed a significant difference for the whole of parameters studied in the parents as in their descendants. Additive and non-additive effects are involved in the genetic control of the analyzed variables. The Hayman model (1954) seems acceptable for five variables on ten variables studied for which additive effects are more important than dominance effects. The analysis of the heterosis effect was significant for the characters tested. For the productivity of the plant, eight hybrids on twelve have expressed a positive heterosis compared to the mid- parent, six combinations on twelve have registered a positive heterosis compared to the over-batter parent and compared to the best variety with an overall heterosis of 17.53%.
This study was conducted to evaluate anti-acetylcholinesterase and insecticidal and antifungal activities of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp, isolated from Ricinus communis L. leaves, against Locusta migratoria L. and Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr.. To evaluate the insecticidal and antifungal activities, different concentrations of the fungal extract were applied against L. migratoria (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 g/l) and against B. cinerea (1, 2, 3 g/l). It was found that the mortality of the targeted insects was positively proportional to fungal extract concentration and time after exposure (24, 48, 72 hours). The concentration 0.4 g/l appeared to be the most effective after 72 hours with mortality rate of 56.52%. Regarding antifungal activity, the concentration 3 g/l was the most effective against B. cinerea after 7 days, with an inhibition rate of 92.06% (excellent antifungal activity). Moreover, it was found that at 4 ug/ml the fungal extract had a maximum inhibitory capacity of Ache of 80% for acetylcholenesterase. Preliminary phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. In addition the colony of this endophytic fungus produced chitinases and proteases, which explained its important antifungal and insecticidal activities.
Certain phenolics have been recognized to possessing antibacterial and antifungal activities and high levels of flavonoids and tannins have been reported in several varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Antimicrobial activity and phenolics contents were investigated in five Algerian sorghum seeds. AS20 sorghum extract showed the highest levels of: total phenolics (3214.46±263.64 mg/100 g), flavonoids (32.03±1.64 mg/100 g) and tannins (615.35±6.10 mg/g) contents; however, comparable flavonoids content was recorded in I27 extract. FZ40 and AS12 flavonoids contents were comparable. Screening for antimicrobial activity, carried out by the disc’s diffusion method revealed an antimicrobial potential of sorghum crude extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and candida albicans yeast. Minimal inhibition concentration determined by microdilution method varied between 0.2 and 2 mg/ml. the lowest value was recorded with F11 and FZ40 extract against Streptococcus pneumoniae and F11 against Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATTCC6538 and MRSA strains showed sensitivity to all extracts. The results show these sorghums as a potential source of natural anti-streptococcal, anti-staphylococcal and anti-candida substances.
The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Anthriscus vulgaris Bernh. were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 36 components have been identified in each extract. The major constituents were 1-monooleoylglycerol (20.72%), caffeic acid (15.20%), cinnamic acid (11.31%) and benzene acetic acid (10.95%). The phytochemical study led to the isolation and structural elucidation of three compounds, scopoletin, umckalin and 1-(3’,4’-dihydroxycinnamoyl) cyclopentane-2,3-diol. Moreover the ethyl acetate extract was screened for its possible in vitro antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy l(DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays in which it displayed a noticeable activity. This study provides the first biological and chemical investigation on Anthriscus vulgaris Bernh. in Algeria.
During recent years the defensive role of diferuloylmethane against oxidative stress and apoptosis has been experimentally documented. Fe3O4-NPs can cause cellular death by inducing oxidative stress. Present study aimed to investigate whether diferuloylmethane could protect rats mitochondria against Fe3O4-NPs intoxication. Twenty adult male rats were randomly chosen and divided into four groups: control; treated with 10 mg/kg/d of Fe3O4-NPs; treated with diferuloylmethane at the dose 20 ml/kg/d; treated with Fe3O4-NPs (10 mg/kg/d) and diferuloylmethane (20 ml/kg/d) respectively for 28 days. The results showed that Fe3O4-NPs increased the Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipid peroxidation, mit-GSH (Glutathione), mit-CAT (Catalase), mit-GST (Glutathione S-transferase) and decreased mit-GPx (Glutathione peroxidase), with increased in mitochondrial swelling and permeability followed by the increasing level of plasmatic Cyt-c. The addition of diferuloylmethane (DFM) to these samples reduces or corrects the amount of the most of biomarkers. These findings have demonstrated that DFM can act as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic factor against damages induced by Fe3O4-NPs.
The present study aims to calculate a new database of conversion coefficients from fluence and air Kerma to personal dose equivalent in two terms: absorbed dose and Kerma-approximations. In this work, we propose a new equation to perform an analytical fit of our Monte Carlo (MC) calculated conversion coefficients for photons for different angles. Also, we have calculated the conversion coefficients using the EGSnrc code. The conversion coefficients have been calculated for beams of monoenergetic photons from 0.015 to 10 MeV, incident on phantom ICRU for angles of incidence from 0° to a 75° in steps of 15°. Our computed values agree well when compared with those published for the ICRU 57 in Kerma-approximations with statistical uncertainties in the calculation around 2%. We can conclude from this work that the analytical approach is successful and powerful such as Monte Carlo methods to calculate the operational quantities.
The purpose of this work was to develop and validate a Monte Carlo model for a Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) scanner based on the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP5). The geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition CT scanner was modeled, taking into consideration the x-ray spectrum, bowtie filter, collimator, and detector system. The accuracy of the simulation from the dosimetry point of view was tested by calculating the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) values. Furthermore, typical quality assurance phantoms were modeled in order to assess the imaging aspects of the simulation. Simulated projection data were processed, using the MATLAB software, in order to reconstruct slices, using a Filtered Back Projection algorithm. CTDI, image noise, CT-number linearity, spatial and low contrast resolution were calculated using the simulated test phantoms. The results were compared using several published values including IMPACT, NIST and actual measurements. Bowtie filter shapes are in agreement with those theoretically expected. Results show that low contrast and spatial resolution are comparable with expected ones, taking into consideration the relatively limited number of events used for the simulation. The differences between simulated and nominal CT-number values were small. The present attempt to simulate a DSCT scanner could provide a powerful tool for dose assessment and support the training of clinical scientists in the imaging performance characteristics of Computed Tomography scanners.