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Cristina-Nicoleta Șoitu

Abstract

This study aims to analyze the variational principle, as it is applied in Dinu Lipatti’s Sonatina for Violin and Piano, from a theoretical-analytical perspective, but also from the standpoint of the interpretative implications. The variational processes, in close connection with the specificity of the neoclassical language of the work, determine an atypical classification of the form of variations in the gender structure, which implies a resizing of the interpretative means by which the musical dramaturgy of the piece can be achieved. The comparison with the classic model of variations as a component of the sonata genre dedicated to the violin-piano duo, as it appears in the works of composers such as Mozart or Beethoven, as a method of analytical research, highlights the language aspects that condition the performer’s vision in the case of Lipatti’s Sonatina, such as character, tempo, metrics, the type of writing, elements of virtuosity or timbre, whose valences are distinct from those determined by a music discourse from the classical era. Understanding the correlation between the succession of movements and the composition of the variational plan constitutes a priority in approaching this work and shaping the desired artistic message; this is why the study attempts to highlight the necessary connection between the structural elements of the composition and those implicitly generated by them, namely the technical and expressive elements required by the interpretative act.

Open access

Carmen Almăşanu

Abstract

Borne from the relevant and efficient expression in the context of contemporary culture, neo-protestant choral spirituality uses a diversified and meaningful language. From the very beginning of the existence of neo-protestant cults on the territory of our country, the establishment of a liturgical repertoire intended for common intonation or by various choral or vocal-instrumental bands has been one of the primordial preoccupations. Along with choral creations translated from the universal literature, there is a significant number of original works created by Romanian composers within the religious services. Due to extremely diverse themes and extrovert character, neo-protestant choral music includes different styles specific to the great tradition of classical, romantic or modern music as well as influences from the extra-European sphere. The text of these creations, which has biblical inspiration or created by the composer, is a means of great diversification in the reproduction of the sound material. Composers and arrangers with high quality music training and a profound understanding of biblical truths, through sound art wanted to contribute to the enrichment of contemporary neo-protestant choral music repertoire, leaving posterity a significant amount of valuable choral pages as inheritance.

Open access

Cătălin Răsvan

Abstract

Sound banks are collections of sound samples from musical instruments of the symphonic orchestra, traditional instruments from various areas of the world and sounds of virtual devices, such as synthesizers, which are increasingly present in contemporary musical creations. Sound banks are loaded in a device called sampler, which can edit and play them. The article describes analog and especially virtual samplers, complex devices that can store or play sounds from specific libraries of sound banks. It also defines and catalogs the main types of digital virtual instruments (that include traditional symphonic orchestra instruments, ones with modern electronic instruments/percussion instruments, and ethnic collections for various geographic areas. Our research on digital applications used in music writing relies on 20 years of experience. Currently, applications are valuable tools for composers and musicians, and for everyone in the contemporary music industry. In 2006, I created the first collection of sound banks made in Romania “The Essence of Panflute”, library containing sound samples 583, grouped in 33 virtual instruments. This is the most complex virtual version of the Romanian pan flute, played by the renowned Cătălin Tîrcolea. The library is designed and edited by Cătălin Răsvan, for the company S.C. Canira Music Internațional. This collection of sound banks presents in minute detail the laborious process of recording and editing this virtual library. “The Essence of Panflute” has seen international acclaim, is distributed by the German company Best Service, one of the major companies in the world, was reviewed in the most prestigious magazine in this field, Sound on Sound, and has opened the door for current/future creators of music. We hope that it is only the beginning for our work in the research and development of digital virtual sound, which is a special category for the instruments in our country.

Open access

Elena Chircev

Abstract

Written in the year of Romania’s centennial anniversary as a national state, this paper intends to offer a panorama of the monodic music of Byzantine tradition of the period, composed by the Romanian chanters. Although the entire twentieth century was characterized by the harmonization of the already established church chants, the musical works written in neumatic notation specific to the Orthodox Church continue to exist, albeit discontinuously. Based on the political changes that occurred in the Romanian society, three distinct periods of psaltic music creation can be distinguished: a. 1918-1947; b.1948-1989; c.1990-2018. The first period coincides with the last stage of the process of “Romanianization” of church chants. The second one corresponds to the communist period and is marked by the Communist Party’s decisions regarding the Church, namely the attempt to standardise the church chants. After 1990, psaltic music regains its position and the compositions of the last two decades enrich its repertoire with new collections of chants. Thus, we can see that in the course of a century marked by political turmoil and changes, psaltic composition went on a hiatus in the first decades of the totalitarian regime, to gradually resurge after 1980, enriched with numerous works bearing a distinct Romanian stamp.

Open access

Carmen Chelaru

Abstract

In 2018, Romanians celebrate the Centenary – a hundred years since Romania had the largest territory ever inhabited primarily by Romanians, at the same time, a century since Romania as a modern country was born. What do we know about our history in the last one hundred years? What and why do we celebrate? We know too little; many of the Romanians participating in the celebration do not know what it is for. The torrent of pathetic and solemn words about the past is useless. I followed two paths side by side, which happen to be in a natural connection, but sometimes they also go through distinct stages: on one hand, the course of the main historical events from the beginning of World War I until now, and on the other hand, Romanian musical life during the same period. I will cover five historical stages (World War I, Interwar Period and World War II, Soviet Occupation, Ceauşescuʼs era and Post-Communist Period) pursuing four main aims: a) an explicit historical image (as a musician I had a relatively narrow perspective on general historical facts); b) completing superficial knowledge received in school (before 1989) with information to justify certain events; c) the relationship between history–culture–music, in support of the idea that art does not exclude knowledge and civic involvement, on the contrary; d) the Past justifies the Present and together they work upon the Future. In the epilogue I will reveal an example that I consider illustrative for this fourth aim: the project Saving Enescu’s Cottage from Mihăileni. I have made this study mainly for my own benefit, in order to understand the historical facts, but especially to find an answer to the question: knowing history – what’s the use?

Open access

Cezara Petrescu

Abstract

Theodor Grigoriu, a reference figure for the XXth century Romanian music, as a senior of the post-enescian generation of composers, with a moderately modern attitude towards composing, had explored the expresive resources of the human voice in the vocal-symphonic and vocal-chamber genres. Although, from a quantitative point of view, his voice and piano works are not too numerous and the vocal-chamber genre had not been a constant focus of the composer, lied remains one of the most representative areas of his entire creation, marked by an accomplished literary taste and harmoniously neighboured by the halo of poetry. The lied had marked Theodor Grigoriu’s professional existence, beginning with the first childhood experiments which proved decisive for his future career, up to the inconstant achievements of his creative maturity. Although approached in a non-consistent manner, the diversity, mastery of composition and the abutment to works from a more ample genre to which he resonates and configures genuine “creation laboratories”, the voice and piano cycles of works represent what can truthfully be called lied creation. Letter to birds on words by St. Francisc of Assisi (2004) and The iconographer – The poem of a church painter (2011) on words of a patriarchal, novel text with no poetic aspirations, are the last lieder of Theodor Grigoriu, published posthumously. As a binding of music and poetry into a one poethico-musical universe, they are an exponent of accumulations and transformations of musical language, spectacular compositions, of paramount originality, which harmoniously complete the spiraled path of the genre in the context of the composer’s entire creation.

Open access

Tatiana Oltean

Abstract

It was during the communist regime of the post-war years that Romanian composer Gherase Dendrino wrote an operetta in celebration of the centenary of Ciprian Porumbescu’s birth, named Lăsați-mă să cânt [Let me sing!]. It revolves around the figure of Porumbescu himself, as the first Romanian composer to have ever written an operetta that would be performed and published, named Crai nou [New Moon]. Lăsați-mă să cânt [Let me sing!] tells the story of the making of the first Romanian operetta and was revived during the spring of 2018 at the Cluj-Napoca Romanian National Opera House, as part of the festivities related to the Centenary of the Great Union. The present research highlights three aspects of Dendrino’s operetta: firstly, the one related to the ethical values, epitomized in the libretto by the main character, Ciprian, who, along with his friends, achieves the greatest task of the birth of the Romanian operetta, in spite of all opposition and pitfalls; secondly, the aesthetic content, regarding de musical language of the work, opposing the world of the Romanian provincial town to the Viennese Salonmusik; thirdly, the political aspect, encompassing the subtext of the libretto and the message of the work, which underwent continuous changes over the decades and social and political contexts up to the present day. Thus, the analysis takes into account both the sound and the word.

Open access

Aurelia Simion

Abstract

Chamber Music has always been a genre predefined to a certain audience. At the merge of the 20th and 21st Centuries, the interest for this genre has grown exponentially, from Romanian and Bessarabia composers alike. Because the concept of Chamber Music has evolved during the ages and has always offered the possibility for experimentation, it has managed to infiltrate into present day Ensembles, by associating timbre and constructive heterogenic instruments. The search for new ways of expressing oneself, new sounds and new stylistic methods and the desire to use new types of sound emission represent a continuous motivation for the composers, whose contribution to the Chamber Ensembles is frequently enrichened. Thus, the Jazz influence has a significant role inside the works of Sabin Pautza, Romeo Cozma (Romania) and Oleg Negruța (Republic of Moldova). The article is focused on Chamber Music compositions with Jazz influences, written by Iași authors. The purpose is to create a general presentation and also a structural-interpretive analysis of some works from my personal repertoire, which was actually one of the main criteria of selection. The objects of the research are: highlighting the particularities of the genre and style of contemporary works; presenting the interpretive aspects of the compositions and proposing some personal suggestions and tips. Although the selected works have been initially composed for different instruments and have been played to live audience, they have not presented themselves, so far, as a research subject, and thus have not been analyzed. Taking into consideration this deduction, the novelty and the personal contribution are visible in the scientific research that deals with the autochthonous compositional patrimony. The aspects presented in this article can be used for pedagogical processes and, at the same time, they can behave as a practical method in managing the chosen repertoire.

Open access

Oana Andreea Severin

Abstract

Throughout the entire evolution of events in the history of music, we are finding the presence of a miniature genre, with a fulminatory evolution in the Romantic period. A syncretic genre, by combining poetry with music, lied generated a highly complex and artistically refined result, hence the preferred leaning of musicians towards it. In the approach of a mythologic page transposed into a Romantic view, in Ganymed we find two figures of genius connected: Goethe – writer and philosopher with a special inclination towards versified creations, with a remarkable, long-lasting activity and with a highly profound view on life – and Schubert – prolific composer, with the most representative contribution in the evolution of this genre, by setting down demarcations and also excelling from a quantitative point of view. This analysis begins from the opposite decoding of the acoustic message, from the point of view of the vocal interpreter, including here most of the implicit aspects: from phonetics to prosody, from dynamics to voice quality in the lied genre, from agogics to breathing and pneumo-phonic accord, from formal organization depending on the construction of the stanza.

Open access

Ciprian Ion

Abstract

Composer Sabin Pautza’s creation, of a style diversity that is rare in the contemporary landscape of Romanian music, stands out through its effervescence and colourfulness, backed by the extraordinary mastery of writing techniques. The work we are referring to in this article, Canti prophani, is a vocal-symphonic suite written for a children’s choir. The suite includes three contrasting miniatures (fast-slow-fast), united through their motif, Maico, Maico..., Dalbe flori and Dimineața ziua bună, representing a translation into music language of the main features of childhood games: repetitive action, rhythm, word play. In terms of language, the children’s choir is assigned only the pure sonority of diatonic modes, while the orchestra overlays harmonic and polyphonic structures that are much more elaborate. The lay character of the lyrics, underlined in the suite’s title, shifts the emphasis from the religious area to that of purity of heart and of sincere joy, the focus being on the high emotions around the feast of Christmas. This brief analytical examination will only highlight the main approaches to the sound material, looking at both archaic influences and at the modern composition techniques, as well as at the manner in which the two blend together. The actual thread that binds all three sections of this work, the image of the mother, occurs everywhere, as the mother is invoked throughout the length of the three parts.