Edyta Chwiejczak and Urszula Kosikowska
A most common infection is that the upper respiratory tract. The human body is inhabited by millions of microorganisms, most of which enable the proper functioning of some systems and constitute a barrier protecting against harmful external factors. Due to the continuous contact of the upper airway microbiota with the external environment, it may seem to be extremely unstable and very diverse. A number of studies have been conducted that have assessed the effect of various factors on the composition of the upper respiratory tract microbiota. This paper presents a literature analysis which showed that the anatomical area is rich in terms of the microbiota that forms it, and despite the constant changes in many parameters, including physical – very stable.
Claudia-Mariana Handra, Eugenia Naghi and Marina Ruxandra Oțelea
Context. Stress is a complex psychosocial phenomenon that significantly influences health. The individual differences in stress response depend on sensitivity to stressors, named “stress vulnerability”.
Objectives. The aims of the study were to determine the level of perceived vulnerability to stress and compare stress vulnerability among students from 2 universities in Bucharest: University of Medicine “Carol Davila” and National University of Political Studies and Public Administration.
Methods. An approximately equal number of students from the two selected universities completed the Romanian version of the Miller-Smith stress vulnerability questionnaire.
Results. A number of 86 (60 women and 26 men) students agreed to participate. Average age was 23.56 years with a standard deviation of 4.86 years. The high vulnerability group included 18 (38%) medical students and 27 (60%) political science and public administration students. The difference was statistically significant (chi2 test, p=0.02) between the two groups. The average health score for medical students (MS) was 15.97, with a median of 15, while for the political science and administration students (PSPAS) the average health score was 24.91, with a median of 26. The average psychosocial score for MS group was 20.41 and the median was 20. In the PSAPS group, the psychosocial score was 26.14 and the median 24. The difference was statistically significant for both health score (p<0.00001) and psychosocial score (p=0.0006).
Conclusions: Stress is a common problem among undergraduated students. In this study the vulnerability to stress was higher for students PSAPS group compared to the students from MS group.
Bogdan-Alexandru Barbu, Zizi Niculescu and Laura-Georgiana Moise
Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a complex syndrome consisting of non-specific symptoms with an onset associated with subjects’ presence in some modern building and the disappearance of symptoms shortly after they leave it. The effects of SBS may be the result of a series of protective reactions of the human body triggered by various types of surrounding environment, further suggesting that the human response could be based on a three-phase biological model: sensory perception, low degree inflammatory reactions and environmental stress reactions. Besides stress created by the discomfort of people who develop symptoms, SBS is the cause of an extensive loss of productivity, sickness absenteeism, wasted time in complaints with all the legal punitive issues that arise from them. The subjects diagnosed with SBS are hard to follow-up over time due to workers often leaving their jobs and being lost from cohort databases. Achieving a reputation of a “sick building” may prove difficult to rehabilitate even after expensive repairs and upgrades. In extreme cases closure and even demolition can occur. SBS is an evolving concept and this review we will present part of this evolution and what are the major challenges for its definition.
Anna Muzykiewicz, Joanna Zielonka-Brzezicka and Adam Klimowicz
Introduction: Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is a plant of which both the fruits and the leaves are sources of compounds with antioxidant potential. Such activity could be helpful to prevent the development of so-called oxidative stress.
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of ethanolic, methanolic and acetonic extracts of mature and immature quince fruits, as well as leaves.
Methods: The extracts were prepared using ultrasound-assisted extraction, for 15, 30 and 60 minutes. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) methods.
Results: Antioxidant activity of all of the evaluated extracts were observed. The highest potential determined with each method was found for leaf extracts. Moreover, higher activity of unripe fruit extracts compared to ripe fruit was observed. Taking into account the applied extractants, the highest antioxidant capacity was found for methanolic extracts, extracted for 60 and 30 minutes. By contrast, the lowest potential was observed mainly for ethanolic extracts (extraction time 15 minutes).
Conclusion: Quince extracts, particularly alcoholic extracts of leaves, seem to be a valuable source of anti-oxidants. Factors as extraction time, the type of solvent and degree of fruit maturity may influence the antioxidant activity of extracts.
Mariia Shanaida, Olena Golembiovska, Nataliia Hudz and Piotr P. Wieczorek
The present investigation was to estimate the total phenolic content and composition of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions obtained from aerial parts of three Lamiaceae species (Dracocephalum moldavica, Ocimum americanum and Satureja hortensis). The total phenolic content of herbal infusions was determined using a spectrophotometric method, whereas the individual phenolics were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was developed and validated. The total phenolic content was measured by applying the Folin-Ciocalteu method with reference to gallic acid. Results were in the range from 29.39 to 65.38 mg estimated as gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry herb. The phenolic profile was, in turn, analysed by HPLC and consisted of gallic acid, hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, and rosmarinic) and flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercitrin, quercetin, apigenin, apigenin-7-glucoside and catechin) in different concentrations. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant component among the hydroxycinnamic acids in herbal infusions of all three plants. This was found to be in the range of 3.64 to 5.28 mg per gram of dry herb. Apigenin-7-glucoside, quercitrin and hyperoside were the prevailing flavonoid components of the infusions.
Daria Bednarek-Hatlinska, Anna Prymas, Marta Mrall-Wechta and Anna Surdacka
Dentistry, is one of the intensively and rapidly growing branches of medicine. This prompts dentists to take an interdisciplinary approach to their patients. Thus, the dentist, being a general practitioner, can make significant contributions to the early diagnosis of systemic disease and the faster implementation of appropriate treatment. In view of the aforementioned, we undertook research on the relationship of pathological changes observed in the oral cavity with diseases of the connective tissue system. Collagenosis is a chronic autoimmune disease initiated by many factors, among which the genetic factor and viral infections are mentioned. The changes observed in the oral cavity may be a picture of the disease, a complication of the disease or a side effect of the treatment. The aim of the study is, thus, too present the pathological changes in the oral cavity which often accompany collagenosis, and to discuss the risk factors of connective tissue system diseases and methods of dental treatment.
Monika Michalak and Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz
Plant-origin oils are an essential element of the diet, affecting the preservation of health, but also of significant importance for the care of skin and its appendages. Among fats of plant origin, oils from fruit seeds are an important group. They are a rich source of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, flavonoids, phytosterols and other bioactive compounds that have positive effect in relation to specific functions of the human body. Fruit seed oils play an important role in health prophylaxis, because they prevent the development of diseases of civilisation, alleviate the effects of stress and slow down the ageing process of the body. Due to the beneficial effects on the skin, they are also used in cosmetology. In formulations of cosmetic preparations, plant oils are the basis for the administration of other active ingredients, but they are also used due to their biological properties. The article discusses in detail the composition, dietary and cosmetic importance of oil from the seeds of raspberries, blackcurrants, rose hips and grapes.
Mihaela Trenchea, Agripina Rașcu and Oana-Cristina Arghir
Over the last thirty years, the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has begun to be elucidated worldwide due to the presence of standardized diagnostic and treatment. In adults, the clinical diagnosis may be suggestive of OSAS when symptoms like fatigue, lack of concentration, poor work performance, absenteeism, daytime sleepiness, insomnia, snoring, nocturnal respiratory distress or apnea episodes witnessed by others are present. Some medical conditions found in employees’ personal history such as craniofacial abnormalities, some endocrine diseases, arterial hypertension, especially resistant arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, stroke, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cognitive dysfunction or mental disorders may be the alarm signal for OSAS. The assessment of all risk factors, clinical presentation and diagnosis must become an important part of occupational medical examinations and performed in all workers due to its major public health potential and impact on survival. The early identification of OSAS among workers performed by the occupational physician can potentially reduce the risk of work injuries and fatalities. In conclusion, OSAS is a complex entity and an important public health problem. The delay in diagnosis and treatment contributes to the increase of healthcare services demand and implicitly to general mortality.
Iwona Golak-Siwulska, Alina Kałużewicz, Siergiej Wdowienko, Luiza Dawidowicz and Krzysztof Sobieralski
The white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach is an edible mushroom of top economic significance. In recent years the consumption of fruiting bodies of this species has been increasing in Poland. The article characterises the chemical composition and health-promoting properties of white button mushrooms. The latest scientific research confirms that the fruiting bodies of white button mushroom have high nutritional value. They contain good quality proteins, necessary unsaturated fatty acids, fibre, some vitamins and numerous minerals. Apart from that, white button mushroom fruiting bodies contain a wide range of bioactive substances, which have a positive influence on health, such as polysaccharides, glyco-proteins, tocopherols, polyphenols and other antioxidants, e.g. ergothioneine. Apart from the antioxidant properties, the white button mushroom also has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities.