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Open access

W. Ahmad, P. Mushtaq, Shahnaz and S. Kumar

Summary

Two new species of the genus Coomansinema Ahmad and Jairajpuri, 1989 are described and illustrated. C. japonicum n. sp. is characterized by having medium size body (L= 1.40 – 1.45 mm); lip region truncate with completely amalgamated lips; amphideal fovea goblet – shaped; 16 – 20 μm long odontostyle; 23 – 25 μm long odontophore; comparatively anterior position of the second pair of pharyngeal glands; amphidelphic female genital system; longitudinal vulva; males with 48 – 54 μm long spicules; 7 – 8 spaced ventromedian supplements and tail long filiform in female and short conoid in male. C. longicaudatum n. sp. is characterized by having medium size body (L= 1.1 – 1.3 mm); lip region truncate, continuous with completely amalgamated lips; amphideal fovea cup – shaped; 16 – 17 μm long odontostyle; 19 – 20 μm long odontophore; comparatively anterior position of the second pair of pharyngeal glands; amphidelphic female genital system; transverse vulva, intestinal – prerectum junction with a tongue – like structure and 210 – 269 μm long filiform tail. A key to its seven valid species is provided.

Open access

N. Yu. Rubtsova and R. A. Heckmann

Summary

New morphometric data, including details of the copulatory system and attachment structures, as well as inner organs are provided for Ancyrocephalus paradoxus Creplin, 1839. Scanning electron microscopy reveals new information of the body shape, position of the cephalic organs’ openings, and structure of anchors, as well as differences in the in anchors’ structure in adults and sub-adults of A. paradoxus. Energy dispersive analysis for X-ray was conducted for the first time for anchors in Monogenea and revealed structural differences between different parts of the anchors in two age groups.

Open access

K. Morsy, M. Al-Kahtani, A. Shati, A. El-Kott, R. Abdel-Gaber and M. Fol

Summary

Parapharyngodon (Oxyurida) is a lizard gastrointestinal nematode parasite with a life cycle including lizards as main hosts. However, some species are known to parasitize anurans. In the present study, P. japonicus isolated from the large intestine of the Egyptian changeable lizard, Agama mutabilis was described and illustrated. Forty five specimens of these animals were collected from south Sinai desert, Egypt during the period from May to September 2017. After necropsy, the body was opened by a longitudinal incision from vent to throat, and the gastrointestinal tract was removed. The esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines were examined separately for helminthes. The recovered nematodes were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Thirty six specimens (80.0 %) were found to be naturally infected. The parasite was robust with prominent cuticular transverse annulations. Mouth surrounded by three bilobed lips, each with tiny labial papillae. Three pairs of caudal papillae were observed in male worms; 1 pair precloacal, 1 pair sublateral in cloacal opening line, 1 pair in proximal region of caudal appendage on its narrowed point. The posterior extremity beard dorsally directed caudal appendages. Females were with a conical posterior end terminated at a terminal spike. Ovaries reached esophageal isthmus but not wrapped around corpus. The parasite recorded was compared morphologically and morphometrically with the most similar species, it was found that it was most similar to P. japonicus with new host and locality records.

Open access

J. Intra, C. Sarto, E. Manuli, P. M. Vannini and P. Brambilla

Summary

We are reporting the case of a nine-month-old Pakistani female with complaint of growth retardation who presented multiple intestinal parasitic infections. Probably because of contamination with fecal matter, the initial microscopic examination of the urinary sample revealed the presence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis, cysts of Entamoeba coli, and an organism similar to mites. Stool samples were obtained after two weeks and microscopic investigation confirmed the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs, cysts of Entamoeba coli, and hookworm eggs. The patient was immediately subjected to mebendazole therapy associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, to which she responded well. Follow-up stool re-examinations performed 15 and 30 days after the treatment tested negative for all parasitic ova and cysts. This study reflects the importance of considering multiple parasitic infestations in low socio-economic populations and highlights the need of improving poor hygienic conditions to prevent such infections, in particular in children.

Open access

E. Palumbo, M. R. Werneck and J. I. Diaz

Summary

The side-necked turtle Hydromedusa tectifera commonly inhabits the tributary streams of the Rio de La Plata and occasionally is found in brackish waters within the estuary of the Rio de La Plata. Few studies have been conducted on its parasitic fauna, especially in Argentina. In the present work Amphiorchis sp. is registered for the first time in a freshwater turtle, expanding the knowledge about the specificity of the genus that until now was considered inhabiting only marine turtles.

Open access

D. Nugaraitė, V. Mažeika and A. Paulauskas

Summary

This study presents the helminthological data on three mustelid species with overlapping ecological niches in Lithuania. In general, 14 helminth species or higher taxa were reported from all mustelids: Isthmiophora melis, Strigea strigis metacercariae, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Alaria alata mesocercariae, Phyllodistomum folium, Opisthorchis felineus, Metametorchis skrjabini, Mesocestoides sp., Taenia martis, Aonchotheca putorii, Crenosoma schachmatovae, Eucoleus aerophilus, Molineus patens, and Nematoda g. sp. The largest number of helminths was detected in M. putorius (11) and N. vison (10) from wetlands; 7 helminths were detected in M. putorius from forests, and 8 in N. vison and 4 in L. lutra from water bodies. Habitat-related differences were found in the abundance and prevalence of E. aerophilus in M. putorius. M. putorius has higher indices of infection by I. melis, S. strigis metacercariae, and E. aerophilus compared to N. vison in wetlands. Differences in the abundance and prevalence of P. truncatum among N. vison and L. lutra in water bodies have been observed. Helminths detected in N. vison in the present study are native European parasites.

Open access

M. M. Michalski, R. Gałęcki and K. Siedlecka

Summary

Mute swans (Cygnus olor) of the Anatidae family are common in wetlands of Europe. They winter in Africa, Asia and some parts of Europe. The species is exposed to many pathogens in its places of residence, including parasites possibly introduced from tropical countries by other species of birds that take long wanderings and occupy a similar ecological niche. One such case is the infection of the Sarconema eurycerca, nematode belonging to the Filarioidea family. It invades the bird’s myocardium and, according to some authors, this nematode may be one of the main causes of swans’ deaths. The material for the present study was an approximately 2 year old female mute swan, which during the flight fell suddenly to the ground in Pomorskie Voivodeship (Poland, 53°50′18″N 18°12′54″E) in November. During the examination and medical observation, weakness, diarrhea and infestation with lice were found. The cause of its eventual death was attributed to a failure of the circulatory system. Post mortem, two abscesses with diameters of 2-3 cm were found in its liver parenchyma. Three nematodes were visible in the epicardium and many more in myocardium. Upon cutting open the heart, small yellowish foci, about 1 mm in diameter were scattered over valves. On the basis of morphological features, infection by Sarconema eurycerca was concluded. As far as we are aware, in Poland there were no earlier reports of this parasite infecting a swan.

Open access

V. Sabūnas, J. Radzijevskaja, P. Sakalauskas and A. Paulauskas

Summary

Over the past decade, increasing numbers of autochthonous cases of heartworm infection have been reported in the countries of Eastern Europe where previously only imported cases were described. In this report we have described the first clinical case of Dirofilaria immitis infection in an imported dog in Lithuania.

In 2018, a 5-year-old male Spanish greyhound (Spanish galgo) was imported to Lithuania from southern Spain and referred to a small animal veterinary clinic in Vilnius for wellness screening. Circulating microfilariae and female antigens of D. immitis were detected using the Knott’s test and SNAP 4Dx Plus Test (IDEXX Laboratories, Portland, USA). The diagnosis was confirmed using molecular analysis. Treatment according to the guidelines recommended by the American Heartworm Society was applied. This is the first confirmed report of canine heartworm infection in an imported dog in Lithuania. Heartworm-infected dogs transported to North-Eastern Europe from endemic areas could act as microfilarial reservoirs for the local mosquito population, which could increase the risk of spreading the disease.

Open access

N. Thligene, G. N. Mezzapesa, D. Mondelli, A. Trani, P. Veronico, M. T. Melillo, S. Dumontet, T. Miano and N. Sasanelli

Summary

Plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) are important pests of numerous agricultural crops especially vegetables, able to cause remarkable yield losses correlated to soil nematode population densities at sowing or transplant. The concern on environmental risks, stemming from the use of chemical pesticides acting as nematicides, compels to their replacement with more sustainable pest control strategies. To verify the effect of aqueous extracts of the agro-industry waste coffee silverskin (CS) and brewers’ spent grain (BSG) on the widespread root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, and on the physiology of tomato plants, a pot experiment was carried out in a glasshouse at 25 ± 2 °C. The possible phytotoxicity of CS and BSG extracts was assessed on garden cress seeds. Tomato plants (landrace of Apulia Region) were transplanted in an artificial nematode infested soil with an initial population density of 3.17 eggs and juveniles/mL soil. CS and BSG were applied at rates of 50 and 100 % (1L/pot). Untreated and Fenamiphos EC 240 (nematicide) (0.01 μL a.i./mL soil) treated plants were used as controls. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chlorophyll content of tomato plants were estimated during the experiment. CS extract, at both doses, significantly reduced nematode population in comparison to the untreated control, although it was less effective than Fenamiphos. BSG extract did not reduce final nematode population compared to the control. Ten days after the first treatment, CS 100 %, BSG 50 % and BSG 100% elicited the highest ROS values, which considerably affected the growth of tomato plants in comparison to the untreated plants. The control of these pests is meeting with difficulties because of the current national and international regulations in force, which are limiting the use of synthetic nematicides. Therefore, CS extracts could assume economic relevance, as alternative products to be used in sustainable strategies for nematode management.

Open access

M. S. B. Oliveira, E. Aparecido Adriano, M. Tavares-Dias and L. Lima Corrêa

Summary

This study compared the monogeneans community in C. monoculus from the Tapajós River (state of Pará) and Jari River (state of Amapá), northern Brazil. A total of 2188 monogeneans belonging to eight taxa were collected from the gills of fish: Gussevia arilla, Gussevia longihaptor, Gussevia tucunarense, Gussevia undulata, Sciadicleithrum ergensi, Sciadicleithrum umbilicum, Sciadicleithrum uncinatum and Tucunarella cichlae. Gussevia arilla was the dominant species for C. monoculus from the Tapajós River basin, while S. umbilicum predominated among the hosts from the Jari River basin. For the two populations of C. monoculus, the prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans were different and the of parasites community had a high qualitative similarity (87.5 %). The monogeneans community of C. monoculus was characterized by high species richness, with infection values varying from low to moderate. The geographic distance and differences in environmental characteristics arising from the same did not influence the richness of species of monogeneans infesting C. monoculus in the Tapajós and Jari rivers, but appear to have been determinants in the differences observed in the structure of the monogenean communities in each region.